Mapping Species Distributions


Prepared by Ian Gibson



The species descriptions on the fungi atlas pages are derived from the technical literature, or where that was unavailable to us or was useful as a supplement, from field guides. The relevant information is restated in uniform format. In some cases, especially for common species, information from the different sources is merged for ease of use. More often, especially with difficult genera such as Cortinarius and Russula, the sources of individual pieces of information are given specifically. For Russula, the description from Trial Key to the Pacific Northwest Species, by Ben Woo, is given first because it is concise, followed by more detailed descriptions. In the SOURCES section, the main technical source is generally given first, although a more accessible source may be used first in the description. Extracted from Matchmaker: Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest by Ian Gibson.


Field Guides

Specialized Work

General Mycology

Periodical Articles

Web Pages

Ctrl-F is the fastest method to reach a specific author's link.

Field Guides

Ammirati, Joseph, McKenny, Margaret, Stuntz, Daniel. 1987. The New Savory Wild Mushroom. University of Washington. Covers primarily the Pacific Northwest. About 130 color photographs of gilled mushrooms with the best quality among field guides, brief descriptions. [Ammirati(1)]

Ariyawansa, Hiran A. et al. 2015. Fungal diversity notes 111-252 - taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity DOI 10.1007/s13225-015-0346-5. [Ariyawansa(1)]

Arora, David. 1986. Mushrooms Demystified Second Edition. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley. This is the best field guide overall, and a must for serious beginners. While it has most information about California, it is an excellent and humorously written source for all of North America. Some color photographs, more black and white photographs, good keys that are very useful for the Pacific Northwest. [Arora(1)]

Arora, David. 1991. All That the Rain Promises and More... Ten Speed Press, Berkeley. An entertaining pocket field guide with 200 mushrooms plus anecdotes. [AroraPocket]

Bacon, R.J. 1976. Josephine, Paul Sterry & Andrew Merrick 2010. A Naturalist's Guide to the Mushrooms and other Fungi of Britain and Northern Europe. Beaufoy Books. Short descriptions and good photographs. [Bacon(1)]

Bandoni, R.J., and A.F. Szczawinski. 1976. Guide to Common Mushrooms of BC. rev. color ed. B.C. Prov. Mus. Handb. Inexpensive but not comprehensive enough for use as sole field guide. [Bandoni(1)]

Barron, George. 1999. Mushrooms of Northeast North America. Lone Pine Press, Edmonton Alberta. Almost 300 well-composed color photographs of gilled mushrooms, often pictured also in other field guides. Brief descriptions. Especially useful in eastern North America. [Barron(1)]

Bessette, Alan E., Arleen R. Bessette, Orson K. Miller, Hope H. Miller, 1995. Mushrooms of North America in Color: A Field Guide to Seldom-Illustrated Fungi. Syracuse University Press. Contains illustrations and detailed descriptions of 42 seldom illustrated gilled mushrooms. [Bessette(1)]

Bessette, Alan E., Arleen R. Bessette, David W. Fischer. 1997. Mushrooms of Northeastern North America. Syracuse University Press. Over 300 color photographs of gilled mushrooms, often pictured also in other field guides. Includes descriptions and keys. A good source for modern names and especially useful in eastern North America. [Bessette(2)]

Bessette, Alan E., William C. Roody, Arleen R. Bessette, Dail L. Dunaway. 2007. Mushrooms of the Southeastern United States. Syracuse University Press. 450 species fully described and illustrated. [Bessette(6)]

Beug, Michael, Alan E. Bessette, Arleen Bessette. 2014. Ascomycete Fungi of North America: A Mushroom Reference Guide.  University of Texas Press. 488 pp. 843 photographs and more than 600 described species. It features field identification of easily visible ascomycetes with a photographic key, but also has descriptions, microscopic information, and general discussion of ascomycetes. [Beug(3)]

Bon, M. 1987. Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and North-western Europe. An illustrated field guide. Hodder & Stoughton. London - Sydney - Auckland - Toronto. [Bon(2)]

Breitenbach, J., Kränzlin, F. 1984. Fungi of Switzerland Volume 1 Ascomycetes. Edition Mykologia Lucerne. [Breitenbach(1)]

Breitenbach, J., Kränzlin, F. 1986. Fungi of Switzerland Volume 2 Non-gilled Fungi. Edition Mykologia Lucerne. [Breitenbach(2)]

Breitenbach, J., Kränzlin, F. 1991. Fungi of Switzerland Volume 3 Boletes and Agarics First Part. Edition Mykologia Lucerne. [Breitenbach(3)]

Breitenbach, J., Kränzlin, F. 1995. Fungi of Switzerland Volume 4 Agarics Second Part. Edition Mykologia Lucerne. [Breitenbach(4)]

Breitenbach, J., Kränzlin, F. 2000. Fungi of Switzerland Volume 5 Agarics Part 3. Cortinariaceae. Edition Mykologia Lucerne. [Breitenbach(5)]

Buczacki, Stefan. 2012. Collins Fungi Guide. Illustrated by Chris Shields and Denys Ovenden. HarperCollins Publishers London. 640 pp. 2400 descriptions of fungi of Britain and Ireland with painted illustrations. [Buczacki(1)]

Courtecuisse, R., B. Duhem. 1995. Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain & Europe. Collins Field Guide Harper Collins, London. Over 1750 color illustrations with brief descriptions. [Courtecuisse(1)]

Desjardin, Dennis E., Michael G. Wood, Frederick A. Stevens. 2014. California Mushrooms - The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Timber Press, Portland, London. Over 1100 species, descriptions, keys, excellent illustrations. [Desjardin(6)]

Kibby, G. 1993. An Illustrated Guide to Mushrooms and Other Fungi of North America. Dragon's World Ltd., Limpsfield, U.K. 400 species (more than half of them gilled mushrooms) attractively illustrated and briefly described. [Kibby(1)]

Kränzlin, F. 2005. Fungi of Switzerland Volume 6 Russulaceae - Lactarius, Russula. Edition Mykologia Lucerne. [Kränzlin(1)]

Kroeger, Paul, Bryce Kendrick, Oluna Ceska, Christine Roberts. 2012. The Outer Spores - Mushrooms of Haida Gwaii. Mycologue Publications, Sidney-by-the-Sea, BC, Canada. Interesting account of field work in what used to be called the Queen Charlotte Islands. More than 100 species illustrated with photographs and a few described in detail. Fascinating background information. [Kroeger(5)]

Læssøe, Thomas, Gary Lincoff, Neil Fletcher. 1998. Mushrooms. Eyewitness Handbooks. Stoddart Publishing, Toronto. Over 250 color photographs of gilled mushrooms from around the world with brief descriptions. [Læssøe(1)]

Laursen, Gary, & Rodney D. Seppelt. 2009. Common Interior Alaska Cryptogams: Fungi, Lichenicolous Fungi, Lichenized Fungi, Slime Molds, Mosses, and Liverworts. University of Alaska Press. [Laursen(1)]

Lincoff, Gary. 1981. Simon and Shuster's Guide to Mushrooms. Simon & Shuster, New York. A North American edition of a European book by G. Pacioni Illustrates and describes about 200 North American gilled species. [Lincoff(1)]

Lincoff, Gary. 1995. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms. Knopf, New York. 750 color photographs with English names organized by color and shape, and a text that gives Latin names and descriptions. [Lincoff(2)]

Marrone, Teresa, and Drew Parker. 2019. Mushrooms of the Northwest. Adventure Press. Cambridge, Minnesota. A pocket-size guide covering four hundred species that gives the most important identifying information about each species. Excellent small photographs illustrate most of the species. [Marrone(1)]

McAdoo, Buck. 2020. Profiles of Pacific Northwest Fungi. Second Edition. G.L. Design, Boulder Colorado. A compilation of about 100 Mushroom of the Month articles published by Northwest Mushroomers Association, plus other curiosities. Many lookalikes, well researched and entertaining. 576 pages. 646 color photographs. [McAdoo(1)]

McBride, Doug, Tyson Ehlers. 2015. Mushrooms to Look for in the Kootenays Second Edition. First Choice Books. Victoria BC. 123 pp. conversational, well illustrated. [McBride(1)]

McCune, Bruce, and Linda Geiser. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press. Corvallis. The first comprehensive guide on the subject, with descriptions, keys, and illustrations. Lichens are only briefly mentioned in this program and are not covered. [McCune(1)]

McCune, Bruce, and Linda Geiser. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Second Edition Oregon State University Press. Corvallis. Update of the 1997 edition. [McCune(2)]

McKnight, Kent H., McKnight, Vera B. 1987. A Field Guide to Mushrooms North America. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin, New York. Illustrates and describes over 500 mushroom species. [McKnight(1)]

McNeil, Raymond. 2006. Le grand livre des champignons du Québec et de l'est du Canada. Editions Michel Quintin. Waterloo, Québec. More than 1000 species, beautifully and profusely illustrated, useful descriptions. [McNeil(1)]

Metzler, Susan, Van Metzler, Orson K. Miller. 1992. Texas Mushrooms. Used here just for range information. [Metzler(1)]

Miller Jr., Orson K. 1979. Mushrooms of North America. E.P. Dutton. New York Third Printing. Much used field guide now superseded by the 2006 guide. [Miller(16)]

Miller Jr., Orson K., Hope H. Miller. 2006. North American Mushrooms. A field guide to edible and inedible fungi. Falcon Guide. Recent guide from very well respected authors. [Miller(14)]

Phillips, Roger. 1981. Mushrooms and other fungi of Great Britain and Europe. Pan Books, London. 288 pp. Similar to author's Mushrooms of North America but with European species not found in that book. [Phillips(2)]

Phillips, Roger. 1991. Mushrooms of North America. Little, Brown, & Co., Boston. 319 pp. Over 1000 color photographs, each having different angles and stages of the mushroom in question, also has concise descriptions of each. [Phillips(1)]

Phillips, Roger. 2013. Mushrooms - A Comprehensive Guide to Mushroom Identification. Pan MacMillan. Over 1250 color photographs, each having different angles and stages of the mushroom in question, also has concise descriptions of each. 384 pp. [Phillips(3)]

Rinaldi, Augusto, Vassili Tyndalo. 1974. The Complete Book of Mushrooms. General Publishing, Canada. Originally published in Italy under title L'Atlante dei Fungi. Paintings and descriptions and other subjects, of more general interest than practical usefulness in Pacific Northwest identification. [Rinaldi(1)]

Schalkwijk-Barendsen, Helene M.E. 1991. Mushrooms of Western Canada. Lone Pine, Edmonton. Watercolors and brief descriptions, particularly strong for Alberta. [Schalkwijk-Barendsen(1)]

Sept, J. Duane. 2006. Common Mushrooms of the Northwest. Calypso Publishing, Sechelt BC. 130 species described macroscopically, good photographs. [Sept(1)]

Siegel, Noah, and Christian Schwarz. 2016. Mushrooms of the Redwood Coast - A Comprensive Guide to the Fungi of Coastal North California. Ten Speed Press. Berkeley. 750 species fully treated, described from fresh collections, and beautifully photographed. [Siegel(2)]

Siegel, Noah, E.C. Vellinga, C. Schwarz, M.A Castellano & D. Ikeda. 2019. A Field Guide to the Rare Fungi of California’s National Forests.. Bookmobile. Minneapolis, MN. 313 pp. Authoritative and beautifully illustrated. [Siegel(3)]

Smith, Alexander H. 1975. A Field Guide to Western Mushrooms. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. [Smith(8)]

Smith, Alexander H., Smith Helen V., Weber, Nancy S. 1979. How to Know the Gilled Mushrooms. Wm. C. Brown Company, Dubuque, Iowa. A variety of mushrooms with line drawings. [Smith(6)]

Smith, Alexander H., Smith Helen V., Weber, Nancy S. 1981. How to Know the Non-gilled Mushrooms. Second Edition. Wm. C. Brown Company, Dubuque, Iowa. Used here only for description of sequestrated gilled species (that do not have fully formed gills). [Smith(4)]

Thompson, Peter I. 2013. Ascomycetes in Colour - Found and Photographed in Mainland Britain. Xlibris Corporation. 367 pp. A wealth of photographic material and concise descriptions. [Thompson(1)]

Trudell, Steve, Joe Ammirati. 2009. Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest. Timber Press. Excellent photographs and accessible descriptions. [Trudell(4)]

Tylutki, Edmund E. 1979. Mushrooms of Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. Volume 1. Discomycetes. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, Idaho. [Tylutki(2)]

Tylutki, Edmund E. 1987. Mushrooms of Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. Volume 2. Non-gilled Hymenomycetes. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, Idaho. [Tylutki(1)]

Vitt, Dale H., Janet E. Marsh, Robin B. Bovey. 1988. Mosses Lichens & Ferns of Northwest North America. Lone Pine. Edmonton. University of Washington Press. Seattle. A field guide that is easy to use: photographs of lichens look like what is seen in the field. Lichens are only briefly mentioned in this program and are not covered. [Vitt(1)]

Specialized Works

Allen, E.A. D.J. Morrison, G.W. Wallis. 1996. Common Tree Diseases in British Columbia. National Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service. [Allen(1)]

Ammirati, Joseph F., G.A. Laursen. 1982. Cortinarii in Alaskan arctic tundra. In Arctic and alpine mycology, the first international symposium on arcto-alpine mycology. Edited by G.A. Laursen and J.F. Ammirati. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington. pp. 282-308. [Ammirati(10)]

Ammirati, J.F., J.A. Traquair, and P.A.Horgen. 1985. Poisonous mushrooms of Canada including other inedible fungi. Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Markham Ont. 396p. [Ammirati(11)]

Bas, C., T.W. Kuyper, M.E. Noordeloos, E.C. Vellinga, R. Van Crevel, E.J.M. Arnolds. 1990. Flora Agaricina Neerlandica: Critical monographs on families of agarics and boleti occurring in the Netherlands. Volume 2. A.A. Balkema. Rotterdam. [Bas(2)]

Barber, Katherine. 1998. The Canadian Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press, Toronto, Oxford, New York. [Barber(1)]

Barnett, H.L., Barry B. Hunter. 1972. Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi. Third Edition. Burgess Publishing Co. Minneapolis. [Barnett(1)]

Bazzicalupo, Anna Liza. 2018. Evaluating Morphology and Geographic Range Extent of Genetically Delimited Species of Mushrooms. PhD dissertation. University of British Columbia. [Bazzicalupo(2)]

Beker, Henry J., Ursula Eberhardt, and Jan Vesterholt. 2016. Fungi Europaei Vol. 14, Hebeloma (Fr.) P. Kumm., Edizioni Technografica. [Beker(1)]

Benenson, Abram S., editor. 1990. Control of Communicable Diseases in Man. Used as a source of information for fungal diseases. [Benenson(1)]

Benjamin, D.R. 1995. Mushrooms: Poisons and Panaceas Freeman, New York. Detailed coverage of mushroom poisoning by a physician and interesting history of the relationship between mushrooms and health. [Benjamin(1)]

Bernicchia, A. 2005. Fungi Europaei. Vol. 10. Polyporaceae s.l. [Bernicchia(1)]

Bernicchia, A., S.P.Gorjon 2010. Fungi Europaei. Vol. 12. Corticiaceae s.l. Edizioni Candusso. [Bernicchia(2)]

Corticiaceae s.i., Fungi Europaei Vol.12., Edizioni Candusso

Bessette, Alan E., William C. Roody, and Arleen R. Bessette. 2000. North American Boletes A Color Guide to the Fleshy Pored Mushrooms Syracuse University Press, Syracuse. More than 450 photographs illustrating more than 300 species, keys emphasizing macroscopic features, and descriptions. Comprehensive, the only work of its kind on the subject, and a pleasure to use. [Bessette(3)]

Bessette, Alan E., William C. Roody, Walter E. Sturgeon, and Arleen R. Bessette. 2012. Waxcap Mushrooms of Eastern North America Syracuse University Press. 160 good quality illustrations, over 100 descriptions complete to spore level. [Bessette(7)]

Bessette, Alan E., Arleen R. Bessette, William C. Roody, and Steven A. Trudell. 2013. Tricholomas of North America - A Mushroom Field Guide University of Texas Press, Austin. More than 170 photographs of excellent quality with good descriptions, differentiating information, commentary, and keys. [Bessette(5)]

Bigelow, H.E. 1982. North American Species of Clitocybe, Part 1. Vaduz, West Germany: J. Cramer. and 1985. North American Species of Clitocybe, Part 2. Vaduz, West Germany: J. Cramer. [Bigelow(5)]

Bon, M. 1974-78. Tricholomes de France et d'Europe occidentale. Docums. Mycol. 3(12): 1-53, 4(14): 55-110, 5(18): 111-164. 6(22-23): 165-304. A standard reference in French. [Bon(1)]

Both, Ernest E. 1993. The Boletes of North America A Compendium Buffalo Museum of Science Buffalo. Not illustrated but a useful taxonomic guide with brief descriptions, ranges, and good bibliography. [Both(1)]

Bourdot, H. & A. Galzin. 1928. Hyménocètes de France M. Bry. Sceaux. 764 pp. [Bourdot(1)]

Brandrud, T.E., H. Lindström, H. Marklund, J. Melot, S. Muskos. 1990-94. Cortinarius Flora Photographica Volumes 1-3. Excellent photographs and also descriptions of European Cortinarius species. [Brandrud(1)]

Braunwald, Eugene, Stephen L. Hauser, Anthony S. Fauci, Dan L. Longo, Dennis L. Kasper, J. Larry Jameson, editors. 2001. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 15th Edition. McGraw-Hill. Used as a source of information for fungal diseases. [Braunwald(1)]

Bresadola, G. 1881. Fungi Tridentini. Tridenti. Republished 1976 Edizioni Agricole. [Bresadola(2)]

Brodie, Harold J. 1975. The Bird's Nest Fungi University of Toronto Press, Toronto and Buffalo. A definitive work on the subject. [Brodie(1)]

Brodo, Irwin M., Sylvia Duran Sharnoff, Stephen Sharnoff. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press. New Haven and London. Non-technical, but includes descriptions, keys, and spectacular photographs. Any naturalists that cannot afford it should receive it as a gift. Lichens are only briefly mentioned in this program and are not covered. [Brodo(1)]

Brown, Dorothy E. 1981 Trial Field Key to the Species of Pleurotus and Allies in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Brown(1)]

Brown, R.W. 1956. Composition of Scientific Words Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. A very good reference for working out derivations of genus and species names. [Brown, R.W.(1)]

Burdsall, H.H. 1985. A Contribution to the Taxonomy of the Genus Phanerochaete (Corticiaceae, Aphyllophorales). Mycologia Memoir No. 10. 1-165. [Burdsall(5)]

Butler, Eugene. 1981 Trial Field Key to Species of the genus Lepista & related species (Clitocybe - Section Verruculosae) for Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Butler(1)]

Callan, Brenda E. 1998. Diseases of Populus in British Columbia: A Diagnostic Manual. National Resources Canada. Canadian Forestry Service. [Callan(1)]

Castellano, M., James M. Trappe, Zane Maser, and Chris Maser. 1989. Key to Spores of the Genera of Hypogeous Fungi of North Temperate Forests with special reference to animal mycophagy. Illustrated by Jackie Atzet, Wendy Madar, & Gretchen Bracher. Mad River Press, Eureka. [Castellano(4)]

Castellano, M., Jane E. Smith, Thom O'Dell, Efrén Cázares, Susan Nugent. 1999. Handbook to Strategy 1 Fungal Species in the Northwest Forest Plan. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-476. United States Department of Agriculture. Descriptions and illustrations of species at risk in the Pacific Northwest. [Castellano(1)]

Castellano, M., Efrén Cázares, Brian Fondrick, and Tina Dreisbach. 2003. Handbook to Additional Fungal Species of Special Concern in the Northwest Forest Plan. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-572. United States Department of Agriculture. Further descriptions and illustrations of species at risk in the Pacific Northwest. [Castellano(2)]

Chariton, Laverne R. 1997. A trial field key to the species of the genus Agaricus of the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Chariton(1)]

Coker, William Chambers. 1923. The Clavarias of the United States and Canada. The University of North Carolina Press. [Coker(2)]

Coker, William Chambers, and Couch, John N. 1928. The Gasteromycetes of the Eastern United States and Canada. Dover Publications, New York. [Coker(3)]

Coker, William Chambers, and Alma Holland Beers. 1951. The Stipitate Hydnums of the Eastern United States. Chapel Hill. The University of North Carolina Press. [Coker(1)]

Cornell University Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic. 2014. Apple Scab - Venturia inaequalis. Accessed January 6, 2015 as [Cornell(1)]

Corner, E.J.H. 1950. A Monograph of Clavaria and Allied Genera. See also the 1970 Supplement listed below under Periodical Articles. Oxford University Press. [Corner(2)]

Corner, E.J.H. 1966. A Monograph of Cantharelloid Fungi. Oxford University Press. [Corner(1)]

Coulter, Elsie. 1975. Trial key to the species of Tricholomopsis in the Pacific Northwest. North Idaho Mycological Association and Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Coulter(1)]

Coulter, Elsie. 1988. Trial field key to the Pezizaceae in the Pacific Northwest. North Idaho Mycological Association and Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Coulter(2)]

Crawshay, Richard. 1930. Spore Ornamentation of the Russulas. London. [Crawshay(1)]

Cripps, Cathy L. 2000. Mycorrhizal fungi of Aspen Forests: Natural Occurrence and Potential Applications. in Sustaining Aspen in Western Landscapes: Symposium Proceedings. June 13-15, 2000. pp.285-298. [Cripps(2)]

Cunningham, G.H. 1944. The Gasteromycetes of Australia and New Zealand. Dunedin. 236pp. Reprinted 1979. J. Cramer. Vaduz. [Cunningham(1)]

Dennis, R.W.G. 1978. British Ascomycetes. J. Cramer. Vaduz. 585pp. [Dennis(1)]

Desjardin, Dennis E. 1987. The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California 7. Tricholomataceae I. Marasmioid Fungi: the genera Baeospora, Crinipellis, Marasmiellus, Marasmius, Micromphale, and Strobilurus. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. [Desjardin(1)]

Diederich, Paul. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica Band 66. J. Cramer. Berlin, Stuttgart. 198pp. [Diederich(1)]

Dilly, Margaret. 1981. Trial key to the species of the genus Agaricus of the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Dilly(1)]

Domanski, S., H. Orlos & A. Skirgiello. 1967. Fungi. Vol. 3. [Domanski(1)]

Doty, Maxwell. 1944. Clavaria, the Species Known From Oregon and the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State College. Corvallis. [Doty(1)]

Eriksson, J., L. Ryvarden. The Corticiaceae of North Europe. Volume 2. 60-286. 1973. [Eriksson(2)] Volume 3. 287-546. 1975. [Eriksson(3)] Volume 4. 547-886. 1976. [Eriksson(4)]

Eriksson, J., K. Hjortstam & L. Ryvarden. The Corticiaceae of North Europe. Volume 5. 887-1047. 1978. [Eriksson(5)] Volume 6. 1048-1276. 1981. [Eriksson(6)] Volume 7. 1279-1449. 1984. [Eriksson(7)] For Volumes 1 and 8 see Hjortstam, Kurt.

Exeter, Ron. 2002. Summary of the Ramaria of the Pacific Northwest. Bureau of Land Management, Salem District, Marys Peak Resource Area. (Included in Pacific Northwest Key Council Keys) [Exeter(1)]

Exeter, Ron. 2002. Key to the Ramaria of the Pacific Northwest. Bureau of Land Management, Salem District, Marys Peak Resource Area. (Included in Pacific Northwest Key Council Keys) [Exeter(2)]

Exeter, Ron, Lorelei Norvell, & Efrén Cázares. 2006. Ramaria of the Pacific Northwestern United States. USDI BLM/OR/WA/PT-06/050-1792, Salem, Oregon. 157pp. [Exeter(3)]

Fay, Marguerite, Kit Scates, and Robert Ramsey. 1981. Trial key to the Nidulariales of the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. Fay(1)]

Fogel, Robert Dale. 1975. The Genus Leucogaster (Basidiomycetes, Leucogastraceae), PhD dissertation. Oregon State University. Fogel(10)]

Franklin, Wilfred A. An alpha-taxonomic study of Hydnellum and Sarcodon for northern California. M.A. dissertation. Humboldt State University. December 1999. [Franklin(1)]

Fries, Elias. 1836-1838. Epicrisis Systematicus Mycologici. Upsaliae. Contains original descriptions of many European species, in Latin. [Fries(2)]

Fries, Elias. 1874. Hymenomycetes Europaei. Contains original descriptions of many European species, in Latin. [Fries(1)]

Funk, A. 1985. Foliar Fungi of Western Trees. Canadian Forestry Service. Pacific Forest Research Centre. BC-X-265. [Funk(1)]

Gerdemann, J.W. and James M. Trappe. 1974. The Endogonaceae in the Pacific Northwest. Mycologia Memoir No. 5. 1-76. [Gerdemann(1)]

Giachini, A.J. 2004. Systematics, Phylogeny, and Ecology of Gomphus sensu lato. Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University. Corvallis. [Giachini(1)]

Gilbertson, R.L. 1974. Fungi that decay Ponderosa Pine. Univ. Arizona Press. Tucson. 197p. [Gilbertson(9)]

Gilbertson, R.L., L. Ryvarden. 1986 (Volume 1) 1987 (Volume 2) North American Polypores. Fungiflora, Oslo. The standard work on the subject. [Gilbertson(1)]

Gilkey, Helen Margaret. 1939. Tuberales of North America. Oregon State Monographs, Studies in Botany Number 1. Published by Oregon State College. [Gilkey(4)]

Ginns, J., M.N.L. Lefebvre. 1993. Lignicolous Corticioid Fungi (Basidiomycota) of North America Systematics, Distribution, and Ecology. The Mycological Society of America Mycologia Memoir No. 19. American Phytopathological Society Press. St. Paul, Minnesota. A listing of species with distribution, hosts, and references. [Ginns(5)]

Ginns, James H., Glenn W. Freeman. 1994. The Gloeocystidiellaceae (Basidiomycota, Hericiales) of North America. Bibliotheca Mycologica Band 157. J. Cramer. Berlin - Stuttgart. [Ginns(24)]

Ginns, J. 2006. Annotated Key to Pacific Northwest Polypores. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Ginns(25)]

Ginns, James. 2017. Polypores of British Columbia (Fungi: Basidiomycota). Prov. B.C., Victoria, B.C. Tech. Rep. 104. [Ginns(28)]

Goetz, Cristel. 1975. Trial macro key to the genus Phaeocollybia in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Goetz, C.(1)]

Goetz, Donald. 1979. Trial macro key to species of the genus Amanita in the Pacific Northwest. Oregon Mycological Society, Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Goetz, D.(1)]

Goward, Trevor, Bruce McCune, and Del Meidinger. 1994. The Lichens of British Columbia. Part 1. Foliose and Squamulose Species. Ministry of Forests Research Program. Victoria, British Columbia. Definitive on the subject, which is not covered in this program. [Goward(1)]

Goward, Trevor. 1999. The Lichens of British Columbia. Illustrated Keys. Part 2. Fruticose Species. Ministry of Forests Research Program. Victoria, British Columbia. Definitive on the subject. Lichens are mentioned only briefly in MatchMaker and are not covered. [Goward(2)]

Grove, W.B. 1937. British stem- and leaf-fungi. vol 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Grove(1)]

Grund, D.W. 1965. Survey of Genus Russula in Washington State. Ph.D. dissertation. [Grund(2)]

Grund, D.W., A.K. Harrison. 1976. Nova Scotian Boletes. J. Cramer in der A.R. Gantner Verlag Kommanditgesellschaft. Vaduz. [Grund(11)]

Guzmán, Gastón. 1983. The Genus Psilocybe. J. Cramer. [Guzmán(1)]

Haines, John Haldor. 1967. A Survey of the Genus Dasyscyphus and Related Genera in Western Washington. Contains descriptions of Lachnum and other discomycetes found in Washington. Master Science dissertation. University of Washington. [Haines(1)]

Halling, Roy E. 1983. The Genus Collybia (Agaricales) in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Contains descriptions of many species found in the Pacific Northwest. Mycologia Memoirs 8: 1-148. [Halling(1)]

Hansen, Lise, Henning Knudsen editors. 1992. Nordic Macromycetes Volume 1 Ascomycetes. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen. Comprehensive keys with short descriptions, for northern European species. [Hansen, L.(1)]

Hansen, Lise, Henning Knudsen editors. 1992. Nordic Macromycetes. Volume 2 Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen. Comprehensive keys with short descriptions, but only for European species, a good complement to Moser's Keys to Agarics and Boleti. [Hansen, L.(2)]

Hansen, Lise, Henning Knudsen editors. 1997. Nordic Macromycetes. Volume 3 Heterobasidioid, Aphyllophoroid and Gastromycetoid Basidiomycetes. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen. [Hansen, L.(3)]

Harrison, Kenneth A. 1961. The Stipitate Hydnums of Nova Scotia. Canadian Department of Agriculture Research Branch. Publication 1099. 60p. [Harrison(8)]

Henderson, D.M., P.D. Orton, and R. Watling. 1969. Color Identification Chart. British Fungus Flora. Agarics and Boleti: Introduction. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 84pp. [Henderson(1)]

Hermanson, Carl A. 1986. Trial field key to the species of Agrocybe in the Pacific Northwest. Prepared for the Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Hermanson(1)]

Hesler, L.R., Smith, A.H. 1963. North American Species of Hygrophorus. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. The standard work on the subject, some black and white photographs. [Hesler(1)]

Hesler, L.R., Smith, A.H. 1965. North American Species of Crepidotus. Hafner Publishing, New York. The standard work on the subject, some black and white photographs. [Hesler(3)]

Hesler, L.R. 1969. North American Species of Gymnopilus. Hafner Publishing, New York. The standard work on the subject, some black and white photographs. [Hesler(2)]

Hesler, L.R., Smith, A.H. 1979. North American Species of Lactarius. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. The standard work on the subject, some black and white photographs. [Hesler(4)]

Hjortstam, Kurt, Karl-Henrik Larsson & Leif Ryvarden. The Corticiaceae of North Europe. Volume 1. 1-59. 1988. [Hjortstam(5)] Volume 8. 1450-1631. 1988. [Hjortstam(6)] For Volumes 2 to 7 see Erikkson, J.

Isaacs, Bill Forgust. 1963. A Survey of Agaricus in Washington, Oregon, and California. Dissertation for Master of Science, University of Washington. [Isaacs(1)]

Jarvis, Stephanie Shea. 2014. The Lycoperdaceae of California (Basidiomycota, Fungi). Master of Science dissertation, San Francisco State University. [Jarvis(1)]

Ju, Yu-Ming, Jack D. Rogers. 1996. A Revision of the Genus Hypoxylon. Mycologia Memoir No. 20. A.P.S. Press, St. Paul, Minnesota. [Ju(2)]

Jülich, W. 1972. Monographie der Athelieae (Corticiaciae, Basidiomycetes). Beih. Willdenowia 7: 1-283. [Jülich(3)]

Jülich, W., J.A. Stalpers 1980. The Resupinate Non-poroid Aphyllophorales of the Temperate Northern Hemisphere. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York. [Jülich(5)]

Kauffman, C.H. 1918. The Agaricaceae of Michigan. Michigan Geological and Biological Survey Lansing Michigan. Used here only for descriptions of a few species and some items in a helpful glossary. [Kauffman(1)]

Kelly, K.L., D.B. Judd. 1955. The ISCC-NBS Method of Designating Colors and a Dictionary of Color Names. U.S. Dept. Commerce, Nat. Bur. Stand. Circ. 553. 158pp. [Kelly(3)]

Kelly, K.L. 1965. ISCC-NBS Centroid Color Charts. Standard Sample No. 2106. U.S. Nat. Bur. Standards. Washington, D.C. 20pp. [Kelly(1)]

Kelly, K.L., Deane B. Judd. 1965. The ISCC-NBS Method of Designating Colors and a Dictionary of Color Names. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. [Kelly(2)]

Kelly, K.L., D.B. Judd. 1976. Color-universal language and dictionary of names. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, NBS Special Publication No. 440. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. [Kelly(4)]

Kerrigan, Richard W. 1986. The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California 6. Agaricaceae. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. [Kerrigan(1)]

Kerrigan, Richard W. 2016. Agaricus of North America. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 114: 1-572. [Kerrigan(3)]

Kirkwood, Helena. 1979. Trial Field Key to the Genus Collybia for the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Kirkwood(1)]

Klett, Hubert Clifford. 1962. A Survey of the Tremellales of the Pacific Northwest. M.Sc. Dissertation. University of Washington. [Klett(1)]

Klett, Hubert Clifford. 1964. North American Species of Exidia. PhD Dissertation. University of Washington. [Klett(2)]

Knudsen, Henning, and Jan Vesterholt, editors. 2008. Funga Nordica: Agaricoid, Boletoid and Cyphelloid Genera. 968 pp. [Knudsen(1)]

Kornerup, A., and J.H. Wanscher. 1962. Reinhold color atlas. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York. [Kornerup(2)]

Kornerup, A., J.H. Wanscher. 1967. Methuen Book of Color 2nd Edition. Methuen Co. Ltd., London. [Kornerup(3)]

Kornerup, A. 1984. Methuen Book of Color. Hasting House, New York. [Kornerup(1)]

Kroeger, Paul, Oluna Ceska, Christine Roberts, and Bryce Kendrick 2008. Interim Report on Multi-Year Inventory of Macrofungi in Gwaii Haanas. Hasting House, New York. [Kroeger(3)]

Kroeger, Paul 2009. Trial Keys to purple to blackish spored STROPHARIACEAE of British Columbia, Canada. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Kroeger(6)]

Kroeger, Paul, and Shannon M. Berch. 2017. Macrofungus Species of British Columbia. Prov. B.C., Victoria, B.C. Tech. Rep. 108. [Kroeger(7)]

Kuo, Michael. 2005. Morels. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. [Kuo(1)]

Kuyper, Thomas W. 1986. A Revision of the Genus Inocybe in Europe. I. Subgenus Inosperma and the Smooth-Spored Species of Subgenus Inocybe. Rijksherbarium, Leiden. [Kuyper(1)]

Læssøe, Thomas, Jens H. Petersen. 2019. Fungi of Temperate Europe. (2 volumes) Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford. 1715 pages. 7,000 photographs, treats more than 2800 species. [Læssøe(3)]

Landry, Brandon. 2019. Phylogenetic relationships of alpha-Amanitin Producing Galerina from British Columbia. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. [Landry(1)]

Lange, J.E. 1914-40. Flora agaricina Danica I-V. Copenhagen. 500 colored plates and mostly macroscopic descriptions in English. OR Lange, J.E. 1935-1939. Flora Agaricina Danica. 5 volumes. Copenhagen. Each volume with 40 plates. [Lange(1)]

Langer, Ewald. 1994. Die Gattung Hyphodontia John Eriksson. Bibliotheca Mycologica. Band 154. J. Cramer. Berlin - Stuttgart. [Langer(1)]

Largent, D.L., Baroni, T.J. 1988 How to Identify Mushrooms to Genus VI: Modern Genera. Mad River Press, Eureka. Descriptions of genera with keys to identifying them, detailed coverage of stature types. [Largent(5)]

Largent, D.L. 1994. The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California 5. Hygrophoraceae. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. [Largent(4)]

Largent, D.L. 1995. Entolomatoid Fungi of the Western United States and Alaska. Mad River Press, Eureka. Excellent standard work on the subject, with detailed descriptions, range maps, and color photographs of more than half of the many species dealt with in this program. [Largent(1)]

Larsen, Harold. 1980. Key to the Genera of the Operculate Cup-fungi (Pezizales) of the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountain Region. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Larsen(2)]

Larsen, M.J. 1974. A contribution to the taxonomy of the genus Tomentella. Mycologia Memoir 4: 1-145. [Larsen, M.J.(9)]

Laycock, Nettie, Reynaldine Sandahl. 1977. Trial field key to the species of Cystoderma in the Pacific Northwest. Puget Sound Mycological Society prepared for Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Laycock(1)]

Leuthy, Coleman S. 1981. Lactarius A Trial Key to Pacific Northwest species. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Leuthy(1)]

Leuthy, Coleman. 1997. Tricholoma A trial field key to species recorded to occur in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Leuthy(2)]

Lindgren, Janet. 1997. Trial Key to Amanita Species in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Lindgren(1)]

Lindgren, Janet. 2014. Trial Key to the speices of Amanita in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Lindgren(2)]

Lloyd, C.G. 1906. Synopsis of the Known Phalloids. Cincinnati, Ohio. [Lloyd(3)]

Lowy, Bernard. 1971. Tremellales. Flora Neotropica Monograph No. 6. Hafner. New York. [Lowy(2)]

Lowy, Bernard. 1980. Tremellales. Flora Neotropica Monograph No. 6 (Supplement). New York Botanical Garden. New York. [Lowy(3)]

Maas Geesteranus, R.A. 1975. Die terrestrischen stachelpilze Europas. North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam-London. 123 pp., 40 pls. [Maas Geesteranus(3)]

Maas Geesteranus, R.A. 1992. Mycenas of the Northern Hemisphere I & II. North-Holland, Amsterdam. The standard modern work on the subject. [Maas Geesteranus(1)]

Maerz, A., M.R. Paul 1952. A Dictionary of Color Second Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York. [Maerz(1)]

Maguire, Robert. 1982. Trial key to Sarcosomataceae of the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Maguire(1)]

Martin, G.W., and C.J. Alexopoulos. 1969. The Myxomycetes. University of Iowa Press. [Martin, G.W.(4)]

Menser, Gary. 1980. Trial field key to the species of Panaeolus in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Menser(1)]

Methven, Andrew S. 1990. The genus Clavariadelphus in North America. J. Cramer. Berlin - Stuttgart. [Methven(4)]

Methven, Andrew S. 1997. The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California 10. Russulaceae II. Lactarius. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. [Methven(2)]

Miller, Orson K., Jr., Hope H. Miller 1988. Gasteromycetes - Morphological and Development Features with Keys to the Orders, Families, and Genera. Mad River Press, Eureka. [Miller(18)]

Miller, Orson K., Jr., Hope H. Miller, Cathy Cripps. 1994. Report on Checklist of Columbia Basin Fungi. Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. [Miller(15)]

Miller, Amy. 1981. Trial field key to the species of Mycena in the Pacific Northwest. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. [Miller, A.(1)]

Miller, J.H. 1961. A Monograph of the World Species of Hypoxylon. Univ. Georgia Press. Athens, Georgia. [Miller, J.H.(1)]

Mochizuki, Takeo. 1979. Trial field key to the species of Lentinus and Lentinellus in the Pacific Northwest. Prepared for the Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Mochizuki(1)]

Moser, M. 1983. Keys to Agarics and Boleti. Translated by S. Plant. Publisher Roger Phillips, London. Comprehensive keys with short descriptions, but only for European species. [Moser(1)]

Moser, M.M., K.H. McKnight. 1987. Fungi (Agaricales, Russulales) from the alpine zone of Yellowstone National Park and the Beartooth Mountains with special emphasis on Cortinarius. In Arctic and alpine mycology II. Edited by G.A. Laursen, J.F. Ammirati and S.A. Redhead. Plenum, New York. pp. 299-317. [Moser(5)]

Moser, M.M., K.H. McKnight, M. Sigl. 1995. The genus Cortinarius (Agaricales) in the Greater Yellowstone area: mycorrhizal associations and taxonomic considerations. In Plants and their environments: Proceedings of the First Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystems. Sept. 16-17, 1991. Edited by D.G. Despain. Tech. Rep. NPS/NRYELL/NRTR-93/XX: 239-246. [Moser(6)]

Munsell Color Co. 1942. Munsell book of color. [Munsell(1)]

Neuman, J.J. 1914. The Polyporaceae of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey. Bulletin No. 33. Scientific Series No. 10. State of Wisconsin. [Neuman(1)]

Noordeloos, M.E., T.W. Kuyper, E.C. Vellinga, editors. 2001. Flora Agaricina Neerlandica - Critical Monographs on Families of Agarics and Boleti Occurring in the Netherlands, Vol. 5. CRC Press, Florida. [Noordeloos(1)]

Noordeloos, M.E., T.W. Kuyper, E.C. Vellinga, editors. 2005. Flora Agaricina Neerlandica - Critical Monographs on Families of Agarics and Boleti Occurring in the Netherlands, Vol. 6. Taylor & Francis: Boca Raton, FL. 227 pp. [Noordeloos(2)]

Noordeloos, Machiel E. 2011. Fungi Europaei - Volume 13. Strophariaceae s.l. 377 color photographs, 648 pp. Edizionia Candusso, Alassio. [Noordeloos(3)]

Norvell, Lorelei L., Ronald L. Exeter. 2008. Phaeocollybia of Pacific Northwest North America. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Salem Oregon. [Norvell(11)]

Oberthur, R., H. Dauthenay. 1905. Repertoire de Couleurs. Vols. I_II. Société Française des Chrysanthémistes. [Oberthur(1)]

Orton, P.D. 1960. New Check List of British Agarics and Boleti. Part III. Notes on Genera and Species in the List. Trans. Brit. mycol. Soc. 43(2): 159-439. [Orton(2)]

Orton, P.D. 1984. Keys. The Genus Tephrocybe Donk in Britain. Bull BMS 18(2). [Orton(1)]

Overholts, L.O. 1953. The Polyporaceae of the United States, Alaska and Canada. Univ. Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Mich. [Overholts(1)]

Ovrebo, C.L. 1973. Taxonomy of the genus Tricholoma (Agaricales) in the Pacific Northwest. M.S. dissertation. University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 129pp. [Ovrebo(4)]

Ovrebo, C.L. 1980. A taxonomic study of the genus Tricholoma (Agaricales) in the Great Lakes Region. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Toronto. [Ovrebo(5)]

Pearsall, Judy. Editor. 1998. The New Oxford Dictionary of English. Clarendon Press. Oxford. [Pearsall(1)]

Pegler, David N. 1983. The Genus Lentinus. A World Monograph. Kew Bulletin. Additional Series X. London. [Pegler(1)]

Pegler, D.N., T. Læssøe, and B.M. Spooner. 1995. British Puffballs, Earthstars and Stinkhorns. Royal Botanic Gardens. Kew, England. 255pp. [Pegler(4)]

Pegler, D.N., P.J. Roberts, and B.M. Spooner. 1997. British Chanterelles and Tooth Fungi. Royal Botanic Gardens. Kew, England. 114pp. Pegler(3)]

Perry, Brian. 2002. A Taxonomic Investigation of Mycena in California. M.A. Dissertation. San Francisco State University. 157pp. [Perry(4)]

Petersen, Ronald H. 1968. The Genus Clavulinopsis in North America. Mycologia Memoir No. 2. 1-39. [Petersen(4)]

Petersen, R.H., Karen W. Hughes. 2004. A preliminary monograph of Lentinellus (Russulales). Bibliotheca Mycologica Band 198. J. Cramer. Germany 268p. [Petersen(25)]

Peterson, E.T. 1998. Systematics of the genus Otidea in the Pacific Northwest. Unpublished Master of Science dissertation. Oregon State University. [Peterson, E.T.(1)]

Pilz, David, Lorelei Norvell, Eric Danell, and Randy Molina. 2003. Ecology and Management of Commercially Harvested Chanterelle Mushrooms. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-576. United States Department of Agriculture. [Pilz(1)]

Quélet, L. Enchiridion Fungorum in Europa Media et praesertim in Gallia Vigentium pp. i–viii, 1–352: 61 (1886). [Quélet(1)]

Raitviir, A.G. 1967. Key to Heterobasidiomycetidae of the USSR. Akad. Nauk Estonsk. SSR. Translated from Russian by Z. Shapiro. [Raitviir(1)]

Ramsey, Robert W. 1993. A trial field key to the Pacific Northwest species of Sclerodermatales. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Ramsey(3)]

Ramsey, Robert W. 1996. Identifying from the Family Entolomataceae in the Pacific Northwest: a Trial Key. Pacific Northwest Key Council and the Puget Sound Mycological Society. [Ramsey(4)]

Ramsey, Robert W. 1998. Trial field key to the Lycoperdales in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Ramsey(1)]

Rayner, R.W. 1968-70. Keys to the British Species of Russula 1-3. Bull. British Mycological Soc. [Rayner(1)]

Rayner, R.W. 1970. A mycological color chart. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew. [Rayner(2)]

Redhead, S.A. 1997. Macrofungi of British Columbia: Requirements for Inventory. Ministry of Forests of British Columbia. [Redhead(5)]

Ricken, A. 1915. Die Blätterpilze Candusso edition of the German mycologist's fundamental work in a single volume, translated by G. Lazzari into Italian. It includes 1412 species of gill fungi and with their identification keys. [Ricken(1)]

Ridgway, R. 1912. Color Standards and Color Nomenclature. Published by the Author. Washington, D.C. Used by many authors of technical literature, but out of print and difficult and expensive to obtain second-hand. [Ridgway(1)]

Roberts, Christine. 2006. Keys and Descriptions of Russulas found in southern Vancouver Island coastal forests. PhD work as presented in Pacific Northwest Key Council Key. [Roberts, C.(2)]

Romagnesi, H. 1967. Les Russules d'Europe et d'Nord d'Afrique. Bordas. [Romagnesi(1)]

Ryvarden, Leif, R. L. Gilbertson. 1976 (Volume 1) 1978 (Volume 2). The Polyporaceae of North Europe. Fungiflora. [Ryvarden(2)]

Ryvarden, Leif, R. L. Gilbertson. 1993-4. Synopsis Fungorum Volume 6: European Polypores Part 1. 1993; Synopsis Fungorum Volume 7: European Polypores Part 2. 1994. Fungiflora. [Ryvarden(3)]

Sarnari, Mauro. Monografia Illustrata del Genere Russula in Europa. Associazione Micologica Bresadola. Fondazione Centro Studi Micologici. Volume 1 1998 800 pages. Volume 2 2005 762 pages. Text in Italian, keys in English translation. Many color photos and micro sketches. [Sarnari(1)]

Scates, Kit, and Tina Gospodnetich. 1981. Trial Field Key to the Species of Pholiota in the Pacific Northwest. North Idaho Mycological Society, prepared for the Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Scates(2)]

Scates, Kit. 1981. Trial Field Key to Limacella in the Pacific Northwest. North Idaho Mycological Society, prepared for the Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Scates(3)]

Scates-Barnhart, Kit. 1981. Revised by Michael Beug. 2003. Trial Field Key to species of Ramaria in the Pacific Northwest. Prepared for the Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Scates-Barnhart(1)]

Schwarze, Francis W. M. R., Julia Engels, Claus Mattheck. 2000. Fungal Strategies of Wood Decay in Trees. Springer. [Schwarze(1)]

Seaver, Fred Jay. 1909. The Hypocreales of North America – I Mycologia 1(2): 41-76. [Seaver(4)]

Seaver, Fred Jay. 1910. The Hypocreales of North America – II Mycologia 1(5): 177-207. [Seaver(5)]

Seaver, Fred Jay. 1911. The Hypocreales of North America – III Mycologia 2(2): 48-92. [Seaver(6)]

Seaver, Fred Jay. 1911. The Hypocreales of North America – IV Mycologia 3(5): 207-230. [Seaver(7)]

Seaver, Fred Jay. 1942. The North American Cup-Fungi (Operculates). Standard work on the subject. Supplemented Edition. Hafner Publishing Company. New York. [Seaver(1)]

Seaver, Fred Jay. 1951. The North American Cup-Fungi (Inoperculates). Standard work on the subject. Hafner Publishing Company. New York. [Seaver(2)]

Seifert, Keith, Gareth Morgan-Jones, Walter Gams, and Bryce Kendrick. 2011. The Genera of Hyphomycetes. CBS Biodiversity Series 9. CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Standard work on the subject, profusely illustrated with microscopic drawings. [Seifert(1)]

Shanks, Kris M. 1997. The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California 11. Tricholomataceae II Tricholoma. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. [Shanks(2)]

Sherwood, Martha A. 1977. The Ostropalean Fungi. Mycotaxon 5: 1-277. [Sherwood(2)]

Sieger, Richard E. 2003. Trial Key to Pacific Northwest Lepiota and Allies. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Sieger(1)]

Singer, Rolf. 1986. The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy 4th Edition. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, Germany. 981 pp. Expensive but authoritative reference for world Agaricales with keys to genus level and lists of species without species descriptions. [Singer(20), 1975 edition is Singer(4)]

Smith, Alexander H. 1947. North American Species of Mycena. University of Michigan. This and Maas Geesteranus' work are the two standards on the subject. [Smith(1)]

Smith, Alexander H. 1951. Puffballs and their allies in Michigan. University of Michigan. [Smith(49)]

Smith, Alexander H., Singer, Rolf. 1964. A Monograph on the Genus Galerina Earle. Hafner Publishing, New York. The standard work on the subject, some black and white photographs. [Smith(2)]

Smith, Alexander H, Harry D. Thiers. 1964. A Contribution toward a Monograph of North American Species of Suillus. Ann Arbor, Michigan. [Smith(34)]

Smith, Alexander H., Hesler, L.R. 1968. North American Species of Pholiota. Hafner Publishing, New York. The standard work on the subject. [Smith (3)]

Smith, Alexander H, Harry D. Thiers. 1971. The Boletes of Michigan. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, Michigan. [Smith(35)]

Smith, Alexander H 1972. The North American Species of Psathyrella. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden Volume 24. A standard work. [Smith(5)]

Smith, Alexander H., V.S. Evenson, D.H. Mitchel. 1983. The Veiled Species of Hebeloma in the Western United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. Standard for these difficult species. [Smith(7)]

Smith, J.D., N. Jackson, A.R. Woolhouse. 1989. Fungal Diseases of Amenity Turf Grasses. Third Edition. E. & F.N. Spon. [Smith, J.D.(1)]

Snell, Walter H., and Ester A. Dick. 1971. A Glossary of Mycology. Revised Edition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [Snell(3)]

Stalpers, J.A. 1993. The Aphyllophoraceous Fungi I. Keys to the Species of the Thelephorales. Studies in Mycology, No. 35. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures Baarn and Delft. Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences and Lettres. [Stalpers(2)]

Stalpers, J.A. 1996. The Aphyllophoraceous Fungi II. Keys to the Species of the Hericiales. Studies in Mycology, No. 40. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures Baarn and Delft. Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences and Lettres. [Stalpers(3)]

Stamets, Paul. 1996. Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley. Comprehensive, interesting, detailed descriptions, good quality color photographs of most species. [Stamets(1)]

Stuntz, Daniel. 1975. Washington Hygrophori. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Stuntz(4)]

Stuntz, Daniel. 1978. Interim "skeleton key" to some common species of Inocybe. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Stuntz(6)]

Stuntz, Daniel. 1981. Macroscopic Field Key to Some of the More Common Species of Cortinarius found in Washington. Pacific Northwest Key Council. (now withdrawn as outdated). [Stuntz(5)]

Stuntz, Daniel. 1982. The Polypores. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Stuntz(3)]

Thiers, Harry D. 1975. California Mushrooms A Field Guide to the Boletes. Hafner Press. [Thiers(1)]

Thiers, Harry D. 1982. The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California 1. Amanitaceae. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. [Thiers(14)]

Thiers, Harry D. 1997. The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California 9. Russulaceae I. Russula. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. [Thiers(3)]

Trappe, James M., Randy Molina, Daniel L. Luoma, Efrén Cázares, David Pilz, Jane E. Smith, Michael A. Castellano, Steven L. Miller, and Matthew J. Trappe. 2009, April. Diversity, Ecology, and Conservation of Truffle Fungi in Forests of the Pacific Northwest. United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. Pacific Northwest Research Station. General Technical Report. PNW-GTR-772. [Trappe(13)]

Trappe, Matt, Frank Evans, and James Trappe. 2005. NATS Field Guide To Selected North American Truffles and Truffle-like Fungi. [Trappe, M.(1)]

Trappe, Matt, Frank Evans, and James Trappe. 2007. Field Guide To North American Truffles Hunting, Identifying, and Enjoying the World’s Most Prized Fungi. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley. [Trappe, M.(3)]

Vaillancourt, L.J. and J.R. Hartman. 2000. Apple scab. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2000-1005-01. Updated 2005. Accessed January 6, 2015 at [Vaillancourt(1)]

Van De Bogart, Fred. 1981. Trial Field Key to Coprinus Section Coprinus, Section Lanatuli and Section Atramentarii. Pacific Northwest Key Council. [Van de Bogart(4)]

Vesterholt, Jan. 2005. The Genus Hebeloma. Fungi of Northern Europe Vol 3. Danish Mycological Society. 146pp, colour photos, drawings. All 45 species known from Northern Europe are keyed out and described in detail. [Vesterholt(1)]

Watling, R. 1982. British Fungus Flora Agarics and Boleti 3 Bolbitiaceae. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Source of some descriptions of species also found in North America. [Watling(1)]

Watling, R., Norma M. Gregory. 1987. British Fungus Flora Agarics and Boleti 5 Strophariaceae and Coprinaceae. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Source of some descriptions of species also found in North America. [Watling(3)]

Watling, R., Norma M. Gregory. 1990. British Fungus Flora Agarics and Boleti 6 Crepidotaceae, Pleurotaceae and other pleurotoid agarics. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Source of some descriptions of species also found in North America. [Watling(2)]

Watling, R., N.M. Gregory, P.D. Orton. 1994. British Fungus Flora Agarics and Boleti 7 Cortinariaceae p.p. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Source of some descriptions of species also found in North America. [Watling(4)]

Weber, Nancy Smith. 1988. A Morel Hunter's Companion A Guide to the True and False Morels of Michigan. Chief Photographer James A. Weber. [Weber(3)]

Wicklow-Howard, Marcia C., and Julie Kaltenecker. 1994. Fungi from the Owyhee Region of southern Idaho and eastern Oregon. Boise State University, Boise Idaho. Prepared from Eastside Ecosystem Management Project. [Wicklow-Howard(1)]

Woo, Benjamin. 1989. Trial field key to the species of Russula in the Pacific Northwest - A macroscopic field key to selected common species reported from Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. [Woo(1)]

1975 edition is Singer, Rolf. 1986. The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy 4th Edition. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, Germany. 981 pp. Expensive but authoritative reference for world Agaricales with keys to genus level and lists of species without species descriptions. [1975 edition is Singer(4)]

General Mycology

Alexopoulos, C.J., Mims, C.W., Blackwell, M. 1996. Introductory Mycology Fourth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, . University level textbook. [Alexopoulos(1)]

Isaac, Susan. 1992. Fungal-Plant Interactions. Chapman & Hall. London. [Isaac(1)]

Kendrick, Bryce. 1992. The Fifth Kingdom Second Edition. Mycologue Publications, Focus Information Group, Newburyport, MA. Classification and biology of fungi, entertainingly written at the university course level, with wide scope and a lot of interesting information. [Kendrick(1)] Third Edition now available (2001). Supplementary illustrations or order these on CD-ROM (or the book) from

Kirk, P.M., P.F. Cannon, J.C. David, and J.A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi Ninth Edition. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K. [Kirk(1)]

Kirk, P.M., P.F. Cannon, D.W. Minter, and J.A. Stalpers. 2008. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi Tenth Edition. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K. Standard reference that is useful as a dictionary and as a classification of all the genera in European style: Its classification has been followed here with some exceptions. [Kirk(2)]

Pilát, A., O. Usak. 1961. Mushrooms and Other Fungi. [Pilát(1)]

Smith, A.H. 1949. Mushrooms in Their Natural Habitats. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. [Smith(15)]

Periodical Articles

Aanen, Duur K., Thomas W. Kuyper, Teun Boekhout, Rolf F. Hoekstra. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Hebeloma based on ITS1 and 2 sequences, with special emphasis on the Hebeloma crustuliniforme complex. Mycologia 92(2): 269-281. [Aanen(1)]

Aarnaes, Jon-Otto, Margaret Boyle, Gro Gulden, Greg Thorn, Andrus Voitk. 2013. Entoloma pseudoparasiticum. Omphalina 4(2): 3-6. [Aarnaes(1)]

Abbott, Sean P. and R.S. Currah. 1997. The Helvellaceae: systematic revision and occurrence in northern and northwestern North America. Mycotaxon 62: 1-125. [Abbott(1)]

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Zeller, S.M. 1948. Notes on certain Gasteromycetes. Mycologia 40: 639-668. [Zeller(18)]

Zeller, S.M. 1949. Keys to the orders, families and genera of the Gasteromycetes. Mycologia 41: 36-58. [Zeller(15)]

Zeller, Sandford M, and Alexander H. Smith. 1964. The genus Calvatia in North America Lloydia 27(3): 148-186. [Zeller(13)]

Zhang, Bin-Cheng. 1989. Elaphomyces spinoreticulatus sp. nov., with notes on Canadian species of Elaphomyces. Can. J. Bot. 67: 909-914. [Zhang(1)]

Zhao, Rui-lin, Dennis E. Desjardin, Kasem Soytong, & Kevin Hyde. 2006. Proposed synonyms in Cyathus. Mycotaxon 97: 327-335. [Zhao(1)]

Zhou, Li-Wei, Josef Vlasák, Wen-Min Qin & Yu-Cheng Dai. 2016. Global diversity and phylogeny of the Phellinus igniarius complex (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) with the description of five new species. Mycologia 108(1): 192-204. [Zhou, L.-W.(1)]

Zhou, Jun-Liang, Lin Zhu, Hong Chen, Bao-Kai Cui. 2016. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Polyporus Group Melanopus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) from China. PLoS ONE 11(8): e0159495. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159495. [Zhou, J.-L.(1)]

Zhuang, Wen-Ying. 1988. Studies on some discomycete genera with an ionomidotic reaction: Ionomidotis, Poloniodiscus, Cordierites, Phyllomyces, and Ameghiniella. Mycotaxon 31: 261–298. [Zhuang(1)]

Zmitrovich, Ivan V. & Alexander E. Kovalenko. 2010. The Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Characteristics of Medicinal Mushrooms in Some Genera of Polyporaceae. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 12(1): 87-89. [Zmitrovich(1)]

Zmitrovich, Ivan V. 2016. Lentinoid and Polyporoid Fungi, Two Generic Conglomerates Containing Important Medicinal Mushrooms in Molecular Perspective. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 18(1): 23–38. [Zmitrovich(2)]

Zugmaier, Walter, Robert Bauer, Franz Oberwinkler. 1994. Mycoparasitism of some Tremella species. Mycologia 86(1): 49-56. [Zugmaier(1)]

Web Pages

Tulloss, R.E., Z.L. Yang, eds. 2013. Amanitaceae studies. Comprehensive details together with illustrations of Amanita and Limacella species. [Tulloss(6)]

Aronsen, Arne. Mycena Page - A key to the Mycenas of Norway. Informative in detail with excellent photographs. [Aronsen(1)]

Braselton, James P. Plasmodiophorid Home Page. Fascinating account of this group, with light and electron micrographs. [Braselton(1)]  An Electronic Monograph of Cordyceps and Related Species. Generous amounts of easily accessible information on this genus. [Cordyceps(1)]

Gamiet, Sharmin. Ectomycorrhizal Mushrooms in old growth forests in the CWHvm biogeoclimatic zone BC. A report with descriptions and illustrations of some previously reported species from BC. [Gamiet(2)]

Halling, Roy E. A revision of Collybia s.l. in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada A revision of his earlier work: The Genus Collybia in the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada (listed above). [Halling(2)]

Hortense. Washington State University Hortense. Home gardener fact sheets for managing plant problems with IPM or Integrated Pest Management. [Hortense(1)]

Kendrick, Bryce. The Fifth Kingdom. Plentiful colored illustrations to go with author's general mycology text. As Professor M.J. Wingfield of Pretoria said, "Why would anyone use any other text?" [Kendrick(2)]

Kuo, Michael. Mushroom Expert with a wide variety of useful taxonomic and other interesting information. [Kuo(5)]

Kuo, Michael. 2006, March. North American Morels in the MDCP. Retrieved from the Web site: [Kuo(2)]

Kuo, Michael. 2007, October. Leucocoprinus flavescens Retrieved from the Web site [Kuo(4)]

Kuo, Michael. Accessed 2014, October. Clavulina cristata. Retrieved from the Web site [Kuo(7)]

Kuo, Michael. Accessed Feb. 8, 2015. Agrocybe molesta. Retrieved from the Web site [Kuo(8)]

Kuo, Michael. Accessed Jan. 18, 2017. The Agrocybe praecox cluster. Retrieved from the Web site [Kuo(9)]

Kuo, Michael. Accessed Nov. 15, 2017. Polyporus radicatus. Retrieved from the Web site [Kuo(10)]

Kuo, Michael. Accessed September 12, 2019. Helvella costifera. Retrieved from the Web site [Kuo(11)]

Kuo, Michael. December 2009. Lactarius rubriviridis. Retrieved July 12, 2020 from the Web site [Kuo(13)]

Kuo, Michael. July 2014. Hygrocybe reidii. Retrieved July 14, 2020 from the Web site [Kuo(14)]

Kuo, Michael. February 2009. Leratiomyces percevalii. Retrieved November 15, 2020 from the Web site [Kuo(15)]

Lichtwardt, Robert W. Lichtwardt, Matías J. Cafaro, & Merlin M. White. The Trichomycetes: Fungal Associates of Arthropods. Revised Edition. 2001. Published on the Internet. Comprehensive treatment. [Lichtwardt(1)]

Mueller, G.M. Website (no longer available) based on Mueller, G.M. 1992. Systematics of Laccaria (Agaricales) in the Continental United States and Canada, With Discussions on Extralimital Taxa and Descriptions of Extant Types. Fieldiana: Botany, new series 30: 1-158. [Mueller(2)]

Mushroom Observer. catalogues mushroom observations – seen as a “living field guide for mushrooms or a collaborative mushroom field journal”. [Mushroom Observer(1)]

Les champignons du Québec. Information on about 3000 species, with photographs of about 2800 species. [Mycoquébec(1)]

Wood, Michael, Fred Stevens. MykoWeb. The source of many images in this program, and a 5 star website: for more details see About MykoWeb on the Help menu. [MykoWeb(1)]

North American Truffling Association. Website for truffles and false truffles, with a wide range of useful information including 3 excellent keys: 1) Key to common western Oregon species of Rhizopogon by Matt Trappe, 26-Mar-2005 (beta test version), 2) A Field Key to Common Genera of Hypogeous and Gasteroid Basidiomycetes of North America, by Dr. Steven L. Miller, and 3) Keys to the Genera of Truffles (Ascomycetes), by James M. Trappe and Michael A. Castellano. (as accessed April 6, 2005) [NATS(1)]

The New York Botanical Garden Catalog of Macrofungi. A not yet complete listing of collections at New York Botanical Garden. [NYBG(1)]

Petersen, Jens H., Thomas Læssøe, Alf Gaba. MycoKey. The best website for photographs of European species. See About MycoKey on the Help menu for further details. [Petersen, J.(1)]

Weber, N.S., J.M. Trappe, W.C. Denison. PezWeb. (not active by June 2004) A Web site dedicated to the study of the Pezizales. Features of cup-fungi, features of the Pezizales in relation to other fungi, characters used to identify specimens to genus, genus-finder, preliminary checklist of Pezizales in Western North America, bibliography, glossary. [PezWeb(1)]

North American Fungi. Peer-reviewed online journal for information on fungal natural history in the Pacific Northwest (Alaska, British Columbia, Idaho, Montana, Washington, and Oregon) and more widely in North America [PNW Fungi(1)]

Pacific Northwest Key Council Keys. Keys to fungi of the Pacific Northwest, for online use (plus illustrations), or downloadable Word or .rtf format. [PNW Keys(1)]

Põldmaa, K,. D.F. Farr, and E.B. McCray. Hypomyces Online, Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, ARS, USDA. Retrieved July 14, 2004, from Well organized monograph. [Põldmaa(2)]

Rogers, Jack D., Yu-Ming Ju, Michael J. Adams. Home of the Xylariaceae Monograph of 14 genera, well organized information. [Rogers, J.D.(3)]

Samuels, G.J., Rossman, A.Y., Chaverri, P., Overton, B.E., Põldmaa, K., Farr, D.F., & McCray, E.B. Hypocreales of the Southeastern United States. Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, ARS, USDA. Retrieved January 18, 2014, from [Samuels(1)]

Silverside, Alan. The website of Biological Sciences, University of Paisley. Biodiversity Reference. Index to the Kingdom Fungi. (no longer active) Included photographs by Alan Silverside used here. [Silverside(1)]

Uljé, Kees. Coprinus site. Descriptions, with microscopic drawings and usually photos, of about 130 species of Coprinus. [Uljé(1)]

Volk, Tom. Tom Volk's Fungi. Access to more than 1000 images, including details of Armillaria species. A wide variety of interesting information. [Volk(2)]


Recommended citation:  Author, date, page title. In: Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2021. E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia []. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Date Accessed]

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