Mapping Species Distributions

BOTANICAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES

Climate Change Effects on Arctic Plant species

by
Valerie Tomlinson
Aurora Research Institute Librarian

Prepared for the Canadian Botanical Association, Conservation Committee

The aim of this bibliography is to summarize research on the effects of climate change on plant life in the arctic (focusing on the North American western Arctic). The starting point for the material was the files of research licensed in the NWT through the Aurora Research Institute, and expanding outward from there. The first section focuses most closely on the effects of climate change on plant life in the western arctic, but much of the research in the files was more general than that, so there is also a section on more general climate change research (still linked to the initial idea, but not necessarily western arctic, or plant specific). Similarly, there is also a more general section on arctic plant research, still linked with the initial idea, but not necessarily climate change specific. The CBA was also interested in the issues of rare plants and invasive species in the Canadian Arctic. Climate change could be having a significant impact there, so there is a small section each on both of those topics. The specific topic of “the effects of climate change on invasive species and rare plants in the western Canadian Arctic” was a little too narrow to find anything, which is why it was broadened it to the above categories (although this provides suggestions for some future research). The idea is to summarize the research in an accessible way in order to present it to political leaders, the media, and thus the general public, to demonstrate that there are real, measurable impacts of climate warming happening right now in our own country, and what effect that may have on Canadians inside and outside of the arctic, with the hopes of generating some action.

Separate bibliographies are presented below for climate change effects on arctic plants, rare arctic plants, invasive plants in the arctic and general references on climate change.

Bibliography of Climate Change Effects on Arctic Plants

ACIA, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (2004), Impacts of a Warming Arctic, Cambridge University Press.

Aerts, R.;Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Dorrepaal, E. et al. 2004.Effects of experimentally imposed climate scenarios on flowering phenology and flower production of subarctic bog species. Global Change Biology, 10: 1599-1609.

Aerts, R.;Cornelissen, J.; Dorrepaal, E. 2006.Plant performance in a warmer world: general responses of plants from cold, northern biomes and the importance of winter and spring events. Vegetatio, 182(1-2): 65-77.

Aerts, R.;Cornelissen, J.;Logtestijn, R.;Callaghan, T. 2007. Climate change has only a minor impact on nutrient resorption parameters in a high-latitude peatland. Oecologia, 151(1): 132-139.

Amiro, B.D., et al. 2001.Fire, climate change, carbon and fuel management in the Canadian boreal forest. Int. J. Wildl. Fire, 10: 405-413.

Anisimov, Oleg and Fitzharris, Blair, [eds.], J.O. Hagen et al. [2001] Polar Regions (Arctic and Antarctic). Response of Arctic Plant Communities, p. 825-826.

Arft, A.M., et al. 1999. Responses of tundra plants to experimental warming: meta-analysis of the international tundra experiment. Ecological Monographs, 69: 491–511.

Asselin, H., Payette, S. 2006. Origin and long-term dynamics of a subarctic tree line. Écoscience, 13(2): 135-142.

Asselin, Hugo. 2005. Dynamique végétale d'une toposéquence subarctique. Interaction entre le climat et les incendies forestiers. Ph.D. thesis. Université Laval.

Ball, T.F. 1986. Historical evidence and climatic implications of a shift in the boreal forest-tundra transition central Canada. Climatic Change, 8: 121-134.

Barber, V.J., Juday, G.P., Finney, B. 2000. Reduced growth of Alaskan White Spruce in the 20th Century from temperature induced drought stress. Nature, 405: 688-673.

Baxter, Gregory James. 1995. Climate change and fire danger. Master’s Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Alberta.

Bean, David, and Henry, Greg. 2004. Climate change impacts on tundra ecosystems. CANTTEX. EMAN-North Information Centre.

Bean, David, Henry, Greg, and Rolf, Sandra. 2003. Canadian tundra and taiga experiment: ecological monitoring in the Canadian Arctic: CANTTEX field manual. [Whitehorse, YT], EMAN North.

Beringer, J. et al. 2005. Surface energy exchanges along a tundra-forest transition and feedbacks to climate. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 131: 143-340.

Björn, L.O. et al. 1997. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on sub-Arctic vegetation. In: Ecology of Arctic Environments [Woodin, S.J. and M. Marquiss (eds.)]. Blackwell Science, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp. 241–253.

Björn, L.O. et al. 1999. Effects of ozone depletion and increased ultraviolet-B radiation on northern vegetation. Polar Research. 18: 331–337.

Bliss, S.C. and Peterson, K.M. 1992. Plant succession, competition, and the physiological constraints of species in the Arctic. Chapin, F.S. et al. (eds.), Arctic ecosystems in a changing climate: an ecophysiological perspective. San Diego. Academic Press, p.111-136

Bret-Hart, M.S., Shaver, G.R., Chapin, III, F.S. 2002. Primary and secondary stem growth in arctic shrubs: implications for community response to environmental change. Journal of Ecology, 90: 251-267.

Bret-Hart, M.S., et al. 2001. Developmental plasticity allows Betula nana to dominate tundra subject to an altered environment. Ecology, 82: 18-32.

Brown, Peter. 2004. Partitioning net CO2 fluxes between the overstorey and understorey of a northern boreal forest. Master’s thesis. Trent University.

Burkett, V.R., et al. 2005. Non-linear dynamics in ecosystem response to climatic change: case studies and policy implications. Ecological complexity, 2: 357-394.

Caccianiga, M., Payette, S., 2006. Recent advance of white spruce (Picea glauca) in the coastal tundra of the eastern shore of Hudson Bay (Québec, Canada). Journal of Biogeography, 33: 2120-2135.

Calef, Monika P. et al. 2005. Analysis of vegetation distribution in Interior Alaska and sensitivity to climate change using a logistic regression approach. Journal of Biogeography, 32(5): 863-878.

Callaghan, T. V., Jonasson, S. 1995. Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and environmental change. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 352: 259-276.

Callaghan, T. V. et al. 2005. Arctic tundra and polar desert ecosystems. Arctic Climate Impacts Assessment: scientific report, 243-352.

Camill, Philip. 1999. Patterns of boreal permafrost peatland vegetation across environmental gradients sensitive to climate warming. Can. J. Bot.77(5):721–733.

Camill, P., and Clark, J.S. 2000. Long-term perspectives on lagged ecosystem response to climate change: permafrost in boreal peatlands and the grassland/woodland boundary. Ecosystems, 3: 534-544.

Canadian Forest Service. 2002.  Climate Change and Fire and Insect Disturbances in Canada's Forest.  (SSC-FO42-333/2002) Ottawa, Ontario : Canadian Forest Service. 
MIC10301367.

CAVM team.2003. Circumpolar arctic vegetation maps. US Fish and Wildlife Service. http://www.geobotany.uaf.edu/cavm

Chambers, S. D. and Chapin, F. S.III.  2003.  Fire effects on surface-atmosphere energy exchange in Alaskan black spruce ecosystems: Implications for feedbacks to regional climate.  Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 108(D1):FFR 1.1-1.17.

Chapin, F.S. III and G.R. Shaver. 1985. Individualistic growth response of tundra plant species to environmental manipulations in the field. Ecology. 66: 564–576.

Chapin, F.S. III, et al. (eds.) Physiological ecology of arctic plants: implications for climate change. New York, Academic Press.

Chapin, F.S. III, et al. (eds.). 1992. Arctic ecosystems in a changing climate: an ecophysiological perspective. San Diego: Academic Press.

Chapin, F.S. III, G.R. Shaver, A.E. Giblin, K.G. Nadelhoffer, and J.A. Laundre. 1995. Response of arctic tundra to experimental and observed changes in climate. Ecology 76(3) 694-711.

Chapin, F.S. III, M.S. Bret-Harte, S.E. Hobbie, and H. Zhong. 1996. Plant functional types as predictors of the transient response of arctic vegetation to global change. Journal of Vegetation Science. 7: 347–358.

Chapin, F. Stuart, III, and Shaver, Gaius R., 1996. Physiological and growth responses of arctic plants to a field experiment simulating climate change. Ecology, 77(3): 822-840.

Chapin, F.S. III and A.M. Starfield. 1997. Time lags and novel ecosystems in response to transient climatic change in arctic Alaska. Climatic Change. 35: 449–461.

Chapin , F.S. III, J.P. McFadden, and S.E. Hobbie. 1997. The role of arctic vegetation in ecosystem and global processes. In: Ecology of Arctic Environments [Woodin, S.J. and M. Marquiss (eds.)]. Blackwell Science, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp. 97–112.

Chapin, F.S. III, et al. 2000.Summer differences among arctic ecosystems in a regional climate forcing. J. Climate, 13: 2002-2010.

Chapin, F.S. III, et al. 2004. Global change and boreal forest: thresholds, shifting states or gradual change? Ambio, 33: 361-365.

Christensen, T.R., et al. 2004. Thawing sub-arctic permafrost: effects on vegetation and methane emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L04501, doi:10.1029/2003GL018680.

Clair, Thomas A. 2000. Climate change and ecosystem research in Canada's North: a report to the Northern Ecosystem Initiative Management Team. Environment Canada Atlantic Region, occasional report No. 13.

Clarke, Karin M. 2004. Phenological growth and reproductive responses to climatic variability and experimental warming in 8 Arctic plant species. Master’s thesis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia. ARI file# 12 402 519.

Clein, J.S. et al. 2000. Modelling carbon response of tundra ecosystems to historical and projected climate: a comparison of plot- and global-scale ecosystem models to identify process based uncertainties. Global Change Biology, 6: 127-140.

Cohen, S.J. (ed.) 1997. Mackenzie Basin Impact Study – Final report. Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service.

Cornelissen, J.H.C., Callaghan, T.V., Alatalo, J.M. et al. 2001. Global change and arctic ecosystem: is lichen decline a function of increases in vascular plant biomass? Journal of Ecology, 89, 984-994.

Crawford, R.M.M., Chapman, H.M., Abbott, R.J. and Balfour, J. 1993. Potential impact of climate warming on arctic vegetation. Flora, 188:367-388.

Crawford, R.M.M., and Abbott, R.J. 1994. Pre-adaptation of arctic plants to climate change. Botanica Acta 107: 271-278

Danby, Ryan K.,Hik, David S. 2007 Responses of white spruce (Picea glauca) to experimental warming at a subarctic alpine treeline. Global Change Biology, 13(2): 437-451.

Danby, Ryan K.,Hik, David S. 2007. Variability, contingency and rapid change in recent subarctic alpine tree line dynamics. Journal of Ecology, 95(2): 352-363.

Dormann, C. F.;Woodin, S. J. 2002. Climate change in the Arctic: using plant functional types in a meta-analysis of field experiments. Functional Ecology, 16(1): 4-17.

Dormann, Carsten F.,van der Wal, René,Woodin, Sarah J. 2004. Neighbour identity modifies effects of elevated temperature on plant performance in the High Arctic. Global Change Biology, 10(9: 1587-1598.

Dorrepaal, E., Aerts, R.,Cornelissen, J.H.C., et al. 2003. Summer warming and increased winter snow cover affect Sphagnum fuscum growth, structure and production in a sub-arctic bog. Global Change Biology, 10: 93-104.

Dorrepaal, E., et al. 2006. Sphagnum modifies climate-change impacts on subarctic vascular bog plants. Functional Ecology, 20(1): 31-41.

Edlund, S.A., B.T. Alt, and K.L. Young. 1989. Interaction of climate, vegetation, and soil hydrology at Hot Weather Creek, Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories. In: Current Research 1989-D. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada.

Epstein, H. E., Walker, M.D., Chapin, F.S.III, et al. 2000. A transient nutrient-based model of arctic plant community response to climate warming. Ecological Applications, 10: 824-841.

Epstein, Howard E. et al. 2004. Detecting changes in arctic tundra plant communities in response to warming over decadal time scales. Global Change Biology, 10(8): 1325-1334.

M.D. Flannigan, B.D. Amiro, K.A. Logan, B.J. Stocks and B.M. Wotton. 2005. Forest fires and climate change in the 21st century. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2005) 11: 847–859.

Fleming, R.A. and Volney, J.A. 1995. Effects of climate change on insect defoliator population processes in Canada’s boreal forest: some plausible scenarios. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 82: 445–454.

Fleming, R.A. 2000. Climate change and insect disturbance regimes in Canada’s boreal forests. World Resources Review, 12: 520-554.

Fosberg, M. A.,/ Stocks, B. J., and Lynham, T. J. 1996. Risk analysis in strategic planning: Fire and climate change in the boreal forest. Fire in Ecosystems of Boreal Eurasia, (Forestry sciences ; 48 ) Kluwer Academic Publishers; Boston.  pp.495-504.

Gamache, Isabelle. 2003. Homogénéité génétique et hétérogénéité écologique du couvert forestier subarctique du nord du Québec face aux changements climatiques. Ph.D. thesis. Université Laval.

Gamache, I., Payette, S., 2004. Height growth response of tree line black spruce to recent climate warming across the forest-tundra of eastern Canada. Journal of Ecology, 92: 835-845.

Gamache, I., Payette, S., 2005. Latitudinal response of subarctic tree lines to recent climate change in eastern Canada. Journal of Biogeography, 32: 849-862.

Gehrke, C. et al. 1995. The impact of enhanced ultraviolet B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes in Vaccinium leaves from the Subarctic. Oikos, 72: 213–222.

Gehrke, C. et al. 1996. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet B radiation on terrestrial subarctic ecosystems and implications for interactions with increased atmospheric CO2. Ecological Bulletin, 45: 192–203.

Gignac, L.D., B.J. Nicholson and S. E. Bayley. The utilization of bryophytes in bioclimatic modeling: present distribution of peatlands in the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada. The Bryologist, 101: 560-571

Gignac, L.D., B.J. Nicholson and S. E. Bayley. The utilization of bryophytes in bioclimatic modeling: projected northward migration of peatlands in the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada, as a result of global warming. The Bryologist, 101: 572-587.

Gignac, L.D., Vitt, D.H., Zoltai, S.C, and Bayley, S.E. 1991. Bryophyte response surfaces along climatic, chemical, and physical gradients in peatlands of western Canada. Nova Hedwigia, 53: 27-71.

Gillett, N.P., et al. 2004. Detecting the effect of climate change on Canadian forest fires. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(18): L18211, doi: 10.1092/2004GL020876.

Goetz, S.J. et al. 2005. Satellite-observed photosynthetic trends across boreal North America associated with climate and fire disturbance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102-38, 13521-13535

Gorham, E. 1988. Canada’s peatlands: their importance for global carbon cycle and possible effects of greenhouse climatic warming. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada Series V 3: 21-23.

Gorsuch, D.M., Oberbauer, S.F. 2002. Effects of mid-season frost and elevated growing season temperature on stomatal conductance and specific xylem conductivity of the arctic shrub Salix pulchra. Tree Physiology, 22: 1027-1034.

Gould, W. A., Raynolds, M., Walker, D. A. 2003. Vegetation, plant biomass, and net primary productivity patterns in the Canadian Arctic. Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 108, no. D2, 8167, doi:10.1029/2001jd000948.

Grace, J., Berninger, F., and Nagy, L. 2002. Impacts of climate change on the tree line. Annals of Botany, 90: 537-544.

Graglia, E. et al. 2001. Effects of environmental perturbations on abundance of subarctic plants after three, seven, and ten years of treatments. Ecography, 24: 5-12.

Graglia, E., et al. 2001. Environmental control and intersite variations of phenolics in Betula nana in tundra ecosystems. New PHytologust, 151:227-236.

Groot, W.J. de, and Wein, Ross W. 1999. Betula glandulosa Michx. response to burning and postfire growth temperature and implications of climate change. Int. J. Wildland Fire 9(1): 51-64.

de Groot, W.J.; Bothwell, P.M.; Logan, K. 2002. Simulation of altered fire regimes and impacts on boreal carbon dynamics. Pages 29–40 in C.H. Shaw and M.J. Apps, eds. Proceedings of The Role of Boreal Forests and Forestry in the Global Carbon Budget. Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB

Hansell R.I.C. et al. 1998. Atmospheric Change and Biodiversity in the Arctic. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 49(2-3): 303-325.

Havström, M., Callaghan, T.V., and Jonasson, S. 1993. Differential growth responses of Cassiope tetragona, an arctic dwarf shrub, to environmental perturbations among three contrasting high and sub-arctic sites. Oikos. 66: 389–402.

Henry, Gregory H.R. Tundra ecosystem responses to climate variability and change: Observational and experimental results. ARI file #12 402 421.

http://www.arcticnet-ulaval.ca/pdf/asm04_Henry.pdf

Henry, G.H.R. (ed.) 1997. The International Tundra Experiment (ITEX): Short-term Responses of Tundra Plants to Experimental Warming. Global Change Biology, 3(Suppl. 1): 164 p.

Henry, G.H.R., and Molau, U., 1997. Tundra plants and climate change: the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX). Global Change Biology. 3 (Supp. 1): 1-9.

ARI file #12 402 421.

Hett, Pippa Secombe. [1999]. Effects of Long-term Warming Experiments on Species Abundance and Diversity in High Arctic. Master’s Thesis. University of British Columbia.

Higuera, P.E., et al. 2005. Vegetational and climatic influences on fire regimes in the southern Brooks Range, Alaska. USGS workshop on fire history and climate synthesis in western North America, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, p.17.

Hinzman, Larry D., Fukuda, Masami, Sandberg, David V., Chapin, F. Stuart III , and Dash, David. 2003.  Frostfire: An experimental approach to predicting the climate feedbacks from the changing boreal fire regime.  Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres  108(D1):FFR 9.1-9.6.

Hinzman, L. et al. 2005. Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern Alaska and other arctic regions. Climate change, 72: 251-298.

Hobbie, S.H. 1996. Temperature and plant species control over litter decomposition in Alaskan tundra. Ecol. Monogr. 66: 503-522.

Hobbie, S.H., Chapin, F.S.III. 1998. The response of tundra plant biomass, aboveground production, nitrogen, and CO2 flux to experimental warming. Ecology, 79(5):1526-1544.

Hogenbirk, J.C. and Wein, R.W. 1991. Fire and drought experiments in northern wetlands: a climate change analogue. Can. J. Bot. 69: 1991-1997.

Hogenbirk, John C., Wein, Ross W. 1995.  Fire in the boreal wet-meadows: Implications for climate change.  Proceedings: Nineteenth Annual Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. Tallahassee, FL :Tall Timbers Research Station.  pp21-29.

Hogenbirk, J.C. and Wein, R.W. 1992. Temperature effects on seedling emergence from boreal wetland soils: Implication for climate change. Aquatic Bot. 42: 361-373.

Hogg, E.H., Lieffers, V.J., and Wein, R.W. 1992. Potential carbon losses from peat profiles: effects of temperature, drought cycles, and fire. Ecological Applications 2(3): 298-306.

Hollister, Robert D. 2003. Response of tundra vegetation to temperature: implications for forecasting vegetation change. Ph.D. Thesis. Michigan State University.

Hollister, Robert D.;Webber, Patrick J.;Bay, C. 2005. Plant response to temperature in Northern Alaska: implications for predicting vegetation change. Ecology, 86: 1562-1570.

Hollister, Robert D.;Webber, Patrick J.;Tweedie, Craig E. 2005. The response of Alaskan arctic tundra to experimental warming: differences between short- and long-term responses. Global Change Biology, 11(4): 525-536.

Holtmeier, F.K. and Broll, G. 2005. Sensitivity and response of northern hemisphere altitudinal and polar tree lines to environmental change at landscape and local scales. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14: 395-410.

Hu, Feng, et al. 2006. How Climate and Vegetation Influence the fire Regime of the Alaskan Boreal Biome: The Holocene Perspective. Mitigation and Adaptation Stretegies for Global Change, 11(4): 829-846.

Hyvönen, Riitta, et al. 2007. The likely impact of elevated [CO2], nitrogen deposition, increased temperature and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems: a literature review. New Phytologist, 173(3): 463-480.

Jonasson, S. 1996. Buffering of Arctic plant responses to a changing climate. In: Global Change and Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems [Oechel, W.C., T. et al. (eds.)]. Ecological Studies, Vol. 124, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 365–380.

Jonasson, S., et al. 1999. Responses in microbes and plants to changed temperature, nutrient, and light regimes in the arctic. Ecology, 80 (6): 1828-1843.

Jones, Michael Hunt. 1995. Experimental investigations into effects of climate change on high Arctic plants. PhD thesis, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta.

Jones, M.H., MacDonald, S.E.,and Henry, G.H.R., 1999. Sex- and habitat-specific responses of a high arctic willow, Salix arctica, to experimental climate change. Oikos, 87: 129-138.

Jones, M.H., Bay, C., Nordenhäll, U. 1997. Effects of experimental warming on Arctic willows (Salix spp.): a comparison of responses from the Canadian high arctic, Alaskan arctic, and Swedish subarctic. Global Change Biology, 3(suppl.1): 55-60.

Johnstone, J., 1996? An assessment for the Northern Yukon ecological knowledge co-operative of potential plant indicators of climate change. Cassiopeia Research Services, 21 p.

Juday, G.P. et al. 2003. A 200-year perspective of climate variability and response of white spruce in interior Alaska. In: Climate variability and ecosystem response at long-term ecological research sites. Greenland, D., Goodin, D.G. and Smith, R.C. (eds.) pp. 226-250. Oxford University Press.

Kadonaga, Lisa. 1992. Climate change and forest fire occurrence in Canada's Northwest Territories: Forecasting possible futures. M.Sc. thesis, University of Guelph.

Kaplan, Jed;New, Mark. 2006. Arctic climate change with a 2°C global warming: timing, climate patterns and vegetation change. Climatic Change 79 (3-4): 213-241.

Keyser, A.R., et al. 2000. Simulating the effects of climate change on the carbon balance of North American high latitude forests. Global Change Biology, 6(1): 185-195.

Kim, Yongwon, and Tanaka, Noriyuki. 2003. Effect of forest fire on the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O in boreal forest soils, interior Alaska.  Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 108(D1):FFR 10.1-10.12.

Kimball, J.;Zhao, M.;McDonald, K.;Running, S. 2006. Satellite Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Net Primary Production for the Pan-Arctic Basin and Alaska. Mitigation and Adaptation Stretegies for Global Change, 11(4): 783-804.

Kittel, T.G.F., Steffen, W.L., and Chapin, F.S. III. 2000. Global and regional modeling of Arctic-boreal vegetation distribution and its sensitivity to altered forcing. Global Change Biology, 6 (Suppl.1)1-18.

Landhäusser, Simon M., and Wein, Ross W. 1990. Climate change at the arctic forest - tundra boundary. Research report to the Science Institute of the Northwest Territories, Inuvialuit Land Administration and Polar Continental Shelf Project.

Landhäusser, Simon M., and Wein, Ross W. 1993. Size of treeline species related to different short wave radiation input under recent climatic conditions. Report submitted to the Science Institute of the Northwest Territories, Inuvialuit Land Administration and Polar Continental Shelf Project.

Landhäusser, Simon M., and Wein, Ross W. 1993. Postfire vegetation recovery and tree establishment at the arctic treeline: climate-change-vegetation-response hypotheses. J. Ecol. 81: 665-672.

Landhäusser, Simon M. 1994. Climate change and the Arctic treeline. PhD thesis, Department of Forest Science, University of Alberta.

Lange, Petra. 1992 (1993?). Fire and climate change on the instability and revegetation of permafrost soils. Thesis, Diplomarbeit der Fakultät für Biologie der Universität Tübingen. Research report to the Science Institute of the Northwest Territories, Inuvialuit Land Administration and Polar Continental Shelf.

Lavoie, C. and Payette, S. 1992. Black spruce growth forms as a record of a changing winter environment, Quebec, Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research. 24: 40-49.

Liston, G.E., et al. 2002. Modelled changes in arctic tundra snow, energy, and moisture fluxes due to increased shrubs. Global Change Biology, 8: 17-32.

Litvak, Marcy, et al. 2003. Effect of stand age on whole ecosystem CO2 exchange in the Canadian boreal forest.  Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D3):WFX 6.1-6.11.

Lloyd, A.H. 2005. Ecological histories from Alaska tree lines provide insight into future change. Ecology, 86: 1687-1695.

Lloyd, A.H. and Fastie, C.L. 2002. Spatial and temporal variability in tree growth and climate response of treeline trees in Alaska. Climate Change, 52: 481-509.

Lloyd, A.H. and Fastie, C.L. 2003. Recent changes in tree line forest distribution and structure in interior Alaska. Ecoscience, 10: 176-185.

Lynch, J.A., Hu, F.S. Hui, A. 2004. Does vegetation mediate the fire-climate relationship in boreal regions? International Boreal Forest Research Association 12th annual scientific conference, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, p.133.

MacDonald, G.M., Szeicz, J.M., Claricoates, J. and Dale, K.A. 1998. Response of the central Canadian treeline to recent climatic changes. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 88: 183-209.

MacDonald, K.C., et al.2004. Variability in springtime thaw in the terrestrial high latitudes: monitoring a major control on the biospheric assimilation of atmospheric CO2 with spaceborne microwave remote sensing. Earth Interactions 8(20): 1-23.

Mack, M.C., et al. 2004. Ecosystem carbon storage in arctic tundra reduced by long term nutrient fertilization. Nature, 431: 440-443.

Marchand, F.L. et al. 2005.Performance of high arctic tundra plants improved during but deteriorated after exposure to a simulated extreme temperature event. Global Change Biology, 11: 2078-2089.

Marchand, F.L. et al. 2006.Are heat and cold resistance of arctic species affected by successive extreme temperature events? New Phytologist, 172(2): 291-300.

Marchand, F.L. et al. 2006.Disentangling effects of an experimentally imposed extreme temperature event and naturally associated desiccation on Arctic tundra. Functionial Ecology,  20(6): 917-928.

McCoy, Vickie. 2002. Climate change and forest fires in Yukon Territory. M.A. thesis, Carleton University.

McCulloch, James A. W. 1990. Arctic and global change: proceedings of the Symposium on the Arctic and Global Change. Washington, D. C.  The Climate Institute.

McFadden, J.P., Eugster, W., and Chapin, III., F.S. 2003. A regional study of the controls on water vapour and CO2 fluxes in arctic tundra. Journal of Ecology, 84: 2762-2776.

McGuire, A.D., et al. 2000. Modelling carbon responses of tundra ecosystems to historical and projected climate: sensitivity of pan-Arctic carbon storage to temporal and spatial variation in climate. Global Change Biology, 6 (Suppl.1): 141-159.

McGuire, A.D., et al. 2002. Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics and water/energy exchange at high latitudes. Journal of Vegetation Science. 13:301-314.

McGuire, A.D., et al. 2002. Land cover disturbances and feedbacks to the climate system in Canada and Alaska. In: Land change science. G. Gutman et al. (eds.) Springer, pp.139-161.

McKane, Robert B., et al. 1997. Climatic effects on tundra carbon storage inferred from experimental data and a model. Ecology, 78(4):1170-1187.

Molau, U. 1996. Climatic impacts on flowering, growth, and vigour in an arctic-alpine cushion plant, Diapensia lapponica , under different snow cover regimes. Ecological Bulletins. 45: 210–219.

Molau, U. 2001. Tundra plant responses to experimental and natural temperature changes. Memoirs of National Institute of Polar Research, special issue, No.54: 445-466.

Myeni, R.B., et al. 1997. Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 – 1991. Nature, 386: 698-702.

Nagy, J. A., A. M. Pearson, B. C. Goski, and W. J. Cody, 1979. Range extensions of vascular plants in northern Yukon Territory and northwestern District of Mackenzie. Canadian Field-Naturalist 93 (3): 259-265.

Natural Resources Canada. 2002. Climate change and fire and insect disturbances in Canada's forests. (pamphlet)

Neuvonen, S., Niemelä, P., and Virtanen, T. 1999. Climate change and insect outbreaks in boreal forests: the role of winter temperatures. Ecological Bulletins. 47: 63–67.

Nichols, H. 2000. Circumpolar warming effects on tree-line reproduction in Canada and Siberia. In Conard,S.G.(ed.) "Disturbance in Boreal Forest Ecosystems: Human Impacts and Natural Processes." International Boreal Forest Research Association 1997 Meetings Proceedings, US Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, St. Paul, Minn., pp. 279-287.

Nichols, H. 1993. Stability of the boreal forest - tundra ecotone: a test for the Greenhouse Effect. World Resource Review 5(3):360-371.

Nicholson, B.J., Gignac, L.D., and Bayley, S.E.. 1996. Peatland distribution along a north-south transect in the Mackenzie River Basin in relation to climatic and environmental gradients. Vegetatio 126: 119-133.

O’Brien, Daniel. [2001?]. Measuring tundra productivity and vegetation structure using satellite imagery.  Master’s thesis. University of Manitoba. (ARI file# 12 402 624)*. 

Oechel,W.C. and Billings, W.D.  1992. Anticipated effects of global change on carbon balance of arctic plants and ecosystems. In: Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate: An Ecophysiological Perspective [Chapin, F.S. III et al. (eds.)]. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 139–168.

Oechel, W.C. et al. 1993. Recent change of Arctic tundra ecosystems from a net carbon sink to a source. Nature, 361, 520–523.

Oechel, W.C. et al. 1994. Transient nature of CO2 fertilization in Arctic tundra. Nature, 371, 500–503.

Oechel, W.C. and Vourlitis, G.L. 1994. The effects of climate change on land atmosphere feedbacks in Arctic tundra regions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 9: 324–329.

Oechel, W.C., et al. 1997. Effects of CO2 and climate change on arctic ecosystems. In: Ecology of Arctic Environments [Woodin, S.J. and M. Marquiss (eds.)]. Blackwell Science, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp. 255–273.

Oechel, Walter C. …et al. (eds.) 1997. Global change and arctic terrestrial ecosystems. Ecological Studies V.124. New York, Springer.

Oechel, W.C. et al. 2000. Acclimation of ecosystem CO2 exchange in the Alaskan arctic in response to decadal climate warming. Nature, 406, 978–981.

Olsen, Sue K. 1993. Simulated fire severity and seedling growth at treeline : a climate change analogue. M.Sc.Thesis, University of Alberta. (file# 12 402 505).

O'Neill, Katherine P., Kasischke, Eric S., Richter, and Daniel D. 2003. Seasonal and decadal patterns of soil carbon uptake and emission along an age sequence of burned black spruce stands in interior Alaska.  Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres  108(D1):FFR 11.1-11.15.

Overpeck, J. T., Rind, D., and Goldberg, R. 1990. Climate-induced changes in forest disturbance and vegetation. Nature, 343(no.6253):51-53.

Payette, S., and Filion, L. 1985. White spruce expansion at the treeline and recent climate change. Can. J. For. Res. 15: 241-251.

Payette, S., Delwaide, A., Caccianiga, M., Beauchemin, M., 2004. Accelerated thawing of subarctic peatland permafrost over the last 50 years. Geophysical Research Letters, 31(18): 1-4.

Payette, S., 2006. Contrasted dynamics of northern Labrador tree lines caused by climate change and migrational lag. Ecology.

Peltonen, P.A., Vapaavuori, E., Julkunen-Tiitto, R. 2005. Accumulationof phenolic compounds in birch leaves is changed by elevated carbon dioxide and ozone. Global Change Biology. 11: 1305-1324.

Phoenix, G.K., et al. 2001. Effects of global change on sub-arctic health: effects of enhanced UV-B radiation and increased summer precipitation. Journal of Ecology, 89: 256-267.

Pisaric, Michael F.J., et al. 2007. Anomalous 20th century tree growth, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34. L05714, doi:10.1029/2006GL029139, 2007

Rastetter E.B. et al. 2004. The role of down-slope water and nutrient fluxes in the response of Arctic hill slopes to climate change. Biogeochemistry, 69(1): 37-62.

Rizzo, B., 1988. The sensitivity of Canada’s ecosystems to climatic change. Canada Committee on Ecological Land Classification, Newsletter 17:10-12.

Rosie, R. 1991. Range extensions and rare vascular plants from Southeastern Yukon Territory. Can. Field- Nat. 105: 315-324

Royal Society, The. 1995. The arctic and environmental change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, series A, Volume 352, Number 1699, pp 197-385.

Rupp, T.S., Starfield, A.M., Chapin, F.S. 2000. A frame-based spatially explicit model of subarctic vegetation response to climatic change: comparison with a point model. Landscape Ecology, 15: 383-400.

Rupp, T.S., et al. 2002 Modelling the impact of black spruce on the fire regime of Alaskan boreal forest. Climate Change, 55: 213-233.

Sakai, A., Yoshida, S., Saito, M. and Zoltai, S.C. 1979. Growth rate of spruces related to thickness of permafrost active layer near Inuvik, northwestern Canada. Low Temperature Science, Series B 37:19-32.

Scott, P.A., Hansell, R.I. and Fayle, D.C.F. 1987. Establishment of white spruce populations and responses to climatic change at the treeline, Churchill, Manitaba, Canada. Arct. Alp. Res. 19: 45-51.

Senkowsky, S. 2001. A burning interest in boreal forests: Researchers in Alaska link fires with climate change. Bioscience  51(no.11):916-921.

Shaver, G.R. and S. Jonassson. 1999. Response of Arctic ecosystems to climate change: results of long-term field experiments in Sweden and Alaska. Polar Research. 18: 245–252.

Shaver, G.R. et al. 1992. Global changes and the carbon balance of Arctic ecosystems. BioScience. 61: 415–435.

Starfield, A.M. and Chapin, F.S. III. 1996. A dynamic model of arctic and boreal vegetation change in response to global changes in climate and land-use. Ecological Applications. 6: 842–864.

Stenström, M., Gugerli, F., Henry, G.H.R., 1997. Response of Saxifraga oppostifolia L. to simulated climate change at three contrasting latitudes. Global Change Biology, 3(suppl.1): 44-54.

Stieglitz, M., et al. 2000. Simulating the effects of climate change and climate variability on carbon dynamics in arctic tundra. Global Biogeochemical cycles 14: 1123-1136.

Stocks, B. J. 1993. Global warming and forest fires in Canada.  The Forestry Chronicle  69(no.3):290-293.

Stow, D.A., et al. 2003. Remote sensing of vegetation and land-cover change in arctic tundra ecosystems. Remote Sensing of Environment, 89: 281-308.

Sturm, M., et al. 2001 Snow-shrub interactions in arctic tundra: a hypothesis with climatic implications. Journal of Climate, 14: 336-344.

Sturm, M., Racine, C., and Tape, K. 2001. Climate change – increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic. Nature, 411: 546-547.

Suarez, F., Binkley, D., and Kaye, M.W. 1999. Expansion of forest stands into tundra in Noatak National Preserve, northwest Alaska. Ecoscience, 6: 465-470.

Tape, Ken;Sturm, Matthew;Racine, Charles. 2006. The evidence for shrub expansion in Northern Alaska and the Pan-Arctic. Global Change Biology, 12(4): 686-702.

Thompson, C. et al. 2004. Relationship of structural complexity to land-surface energy exchange along a vegetation gradient from arctic tundra to boreal forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 15: 397-406.

Thompson, C. et al. 2006. Net carbon exchange across the arctic tundra-boreal forest transition in Alaska 1981-2000. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11(4): 805-827.

Tolvanen, Anne, and Henry, Gregory HR. 2001. Responses of carbon and nitrogen concentrations in high arctic plants to experimental warming. Can. J. Bot.79(6):711–718.

Trofymow, J.A., et al. 2002. Rates of litter decomposition over six years in Canadian forests: Influence of litter quality and climate. CJFR. 32: 789-804.

Vallée, S., Payette, S. 2004. Contrasted growth of black spruce (Picea mariana) forest trees at treeline associated with climate change over the last 400 years. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 36(4): 400-406.

Van Wijk M.T. et al. 2003. Interannual variability of plant phenology in tussock tundra: modelling interactions of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw. Global Change Biology, 9(5): 743-758.

Van Wijk M.T. et al. 2004. Long-term ecosystem level experiments at Toolik Lake, Alaska and at Abisko, Northern Sweden: generalizations and differences in ecosystem and plant type responses to global change. Global Change Biology, 10: 105-123.

Vourlitis, G.L. and W.C. Oechel, 1999: Eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and energy fluxes of an Alaskan tussock tundra ecosystem. Ecology. 80: 686–701.

Waelbroeck, C., P. Monfray, W.C. Oechel, S. Hastings, and G. Vourlitis. 1997. The impact of permafrost thawing on the carbon dynamics of tundra. Geophysical Research Letters 24 (3): 229-232.

Wahren, C.-H. A.;Walker, M. D.;Bret-Harte, M. S. 2005. Vegetation responses in Alaskan arctic tundra after 8 years of a summer warming and winter snow manipulation experiment. Global Change Biology, 11(4): 537-552.

Walker, D.A., et al. 1995. Toward a new arctic vegetation map: a review of existing maps. Journal of Vegetation Science 6:427-436.

Walker, Marilyn D. et al. 2006. Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome. PNAS 103 (5): 1342-1346.

Wallenstein, Matthew David;McMahon, Shawna;Schimel, Joshua. 2007. Bacterial and fungal community structure in Arctic tundra tussock and shrub soils. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 59(2): 428-435. Blackwell Publishing.

Walsh, N.E., et al. 1997. Experimental manipulations of snow-depth: effects on nutrient content of caribou forage. Global Change Biology, 3 (Suppl.1): 158-164.

Wang, G. et al. 2006. Effect of natural atmospheric CO2 fertilization suggested by open-grown white spruce in a dry environment. Global Change Biology, 12(3): 601-610.

Wang, L., Payette, S., Bégin, Y., 2002. Relationships between anatomical and densitometric characteristics of black spruce and summer temperature at tree line in northern Quebec. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32(3): 477-486.

Wein, Ross W. 1989. The importance of wildfire to climate change: hypotheses for the taiga. Fire Ecology (Goldammer, J.  and Jenkins, M. eds.). Academic Press.

Wein, R.W., Thomas, P.A., and Hogg, E.H. Fire related degradation of peat plateau bogs: a climate change hypothesis.

Wein, R. W., Wein, G., Bahret, S. and Cody, W.J. 1992. Northward invading non-native vascular plant species in and adjacent to Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada. Can. Field-Nat. vol. 106, pp. 216-224.

Wein, R.W.; de Groot, W.J. 1996. Fire - climate change hypotheses for the taiga. Pages 505–512 in J.G. Goldammer and V.V. Furyaev, eds. Fire in ecosystems of boreal Eurasia. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.

Welker, J. M.;J. T. Fahnestock;P. F. Sullivan;R. A. 2005. Leaf mineral nutrition of Arctic plants in response to warming and deeper snow in northern Alaska. Oikos, 109(1): 167-177.

Weltzin, Jake F., et al. 2000. Response of bog and fen plant communities to warming and water-table manipulations. Ecology, 81(12): 3464-3478.

Wielgolaski, F.E. (moderator). 2001. Northern treeline: the location of treeline and its importance for humans. Human Dimensions of the Arctic System online workshop, 26-309 November 2001. http://www.arcus.org/harc/pdfs/HARC%5Ftreeline%5Freport.pdf

Williams, Mathew;Rastetter, Edward B. 1999. Vegetation characteristics and primary productivity along an arctic transect: implications for scaling-up. Journal of Ecology, 87(5): 885-898.

Wilmking, Martin;Juday, Glenn P.;Barber, Valerie A.;Zald, Harold S. J. 2004. Recent climate warming forces contrasting growth responses of white spruce at treeline in Alaska through temperature thresholds. Global Change Biology, 10(10): 1724-1736.

Wilmking, M.,Juday, G.P. 2005. Longitudinal variation of radial growth at Alaska’s northern treeline – recent changes and possible scenarios for the 21st century. Global and Planetary Change, 47: 282-300.

Wheaton, E.E. 1988. Exploring the implications of climatic change for the boreal forest and forestry economics of Western Canada. Environment Canada.

Wipf, Sonja;Rixen, Christian;Mulder, Christa P. H. 2006. Advanced snowmelt causes shift towards positive neighbour interactions in a subarctic tundra community. Global Change Biology, 12(8): 1496-1506.

Wookey, P.A. et al. 1994. Differential growth, allocation and photosynthetic responses of Polygoruim viviparum to similated environmental change at a high arctic polar semi-desert. Oikos. 70: 131–139.

Wookey, P.A. et al. 1993. Comparitive responses of phenology and reproductive development to simulated environmental change in sub-Arctic and high Arctic plants. Oikos. 67: 490–502.

Zhuang, Qianlai. 2001. Modeling the influences of climate change, permafrost dynamics, and fire disturbance on carbon dynamics of high latitude ecosystems. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alaska Fairbanks.

 

Zoltai, S.C. 1988. Ecoclimatic provinces of Canada and man-induced climatic change. Canada Committee on Ecological Land Classification, Newsletter 17: 12-15

Zoltai, S.C., Singh, T. and Apps, M.J. 1991. Aspen in a changing climate. Pages 143-153 in: Aspen management for the 21st century. S. Navratil and P.B. Chapman (eds.). Proceedings of Symposium, November 20-21, 1990, Edmonton, Alberta. Forestry Canada, Northwest Region and Poplar Council of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta.

Zoltai, S.C.; Morrissey, L.A.; Livingston, G.P.; de Groot, W.J. 1998. Effects of fires on carbon cycling in North American boreal peatlands. Environmental Reviews 6:13-24.

 

More general climate change references

Aaby, B. 1976. Cyclic climatic variations in climate over the past 5500 years reflected in raised bogs. Nature, 263: 281-284.

Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grasslands and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications, 1(3): 326-347.

Arain, M.A., et al. 2002. Effects of seasonal and interannual climate variability on net ecosystem productivity of boreal deciduous and conifer forests. Can. J. For. Res., 32: 878-891.

Atmospheric Environment Service. 1993. Canadian climate normals 1961-90, Yukon and Northwest Territories. Environment Canada.

Atmospheric Environment Service. 1990. Proceedings of the Fourth Meeting on Northern Climate : Yellowknife October 17-18. Canadian Climate Program.

Bolin, B., Doos, B.R., Jager, J., and Warrick, R.A. (eds.). 1986. The greenhouse effect, climate change and ecosystems. S.C.O.P.E. 29. John Wiley & Sons, Toronto.

Brooker, Rob W. 2006. Plant-plant interactions and environmental change. New Phytologist, 171(2): 271-284.

Brovkin, V., et al. 2004. Role of land cover changes for atmospheric CO2 increase and climate change during the last 150 years. Global Change Biology, 10: 1253-1266.

Burton, P.J., et al. (eds.) 2003. Towards sustainable management of the boreal forest. NRC Press, Ottawa.

Callaghan, T. V. et al. 1998. Part 1: scenarios for ecosystem responses to global change. In: Global Change in Europe’s Cold Regions [Heal, O.W. et al. (eds.)]. European Commission Ecosystems Research Report. 27, L-2985, Luxembourg, pp. 11–63.

Davidson, Dawn, [and Kotanen, P.?] [2001?] Influence of weather variation on growth of grazed Puccinellia Phryganodes. Undergraduate research. University of Toronto. Not published?

Dias, Uyen. [and Kotanen, P.?] [2001?] Influence of weather variation on growth of grazed Festuca Rubra. Undergraduate research. University of Toronto. Not published?

Drobyshev, Igor. 2004. Interactions between climate, natural disturbances, and regeneration in boreal and hemi-boreal forests.  Ph.D. dissertation, Lunds Universitet, Sweden.

Euskirchen, E. S. et al. 2006. Importance of recent shifts in soil thermal dynamics on growing season length, productivity, and carbon sequestration in terrestrial high-latitude ecosystems. Global Change Biology, 12(4): 731-750.

Everett, J.T and Fitzharris, B.B. 1998. The Arctic and the Antarctic. In: The regional impacts of climate change: an assessment of vulnerability. A special report of IPCC Working Group II for the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change [Watson, R.T. et al., (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 85–103.

Flannigan, M.D. and C.E. van Wagner. 1991 Climate change and wildfire in Canada. Can. J. For. Res. 21:66-72.

Flannigan, M. et al. 2006. Forest Fires and Climate Change in the 21ST Century. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11(4): 847-859.

French, Nancy Hitchcock Farwell. 2002. The impact of fire disturbance on carbon and energy exchange in the Alaskan boreal region: A geospatial data analysis.  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.

Fukuda, Masami. 2004. The wildfires of Siberia accelerate global warming: Aggravating wildfires in Siberia. The New Era of the Study of the Japan Sea, edited by Itaru Koizumi et al.  hatsubai Kadokawa Shoten; Tokyo.  pp.207-216.

Grogan, Paul;Jonasson, Sven. 2005. Temperature and substrate controls on intra-annual variation in ecosystem respiration in two subarctic vegetation types. Global Change Biology, 11(3): 465-475.

Hassol, Susan Joy. 2004. Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Fairbanks: International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Cambridge, U.K., New York, N.Y., Cambridge University Press.

Inouye, D.W. 2000. The ecological and evolutionary significance of frost in the context of climate change. Ecology Letters, 3: 457-463.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: 2001. Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Cambridge University Press.

Koch, George W. and Mooney, Harold A. (eds.). 1996. Carbon dioxide and terrestrial ecosystems. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

Ladeau, Shannon l.;Clark, James S. 2006. Elevated CO2 and tree fecundity: the role of tree size, interannual variability, and population heterogeneity. Global Change Biology, 12(5): 822-833.

Laine, K. et al. 1995. Effect of changing snow cover on some ecophysiological parameters in Vaccinium myrtillus under nitrogen overdose conditions. In: Global Change and Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems [Callaghan, T.V. et al. (eds.)]. Ecosystems Research Report 10. European Commission, Luxembourg, pp. 123–124.

Laprise, R. et al. 2003. Current and perturbed climate as simulated by the second-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM-II) over northwestern North America. Climate Dynamics, 21: 405-421.

Le Dizes, S. et al. 2003. Modelling biogeochemical responses of tundra ecosystems to temporal and spatial variations in climate in the Kuparuk River Basin (Alaska). Journal of Geophysical Research, doi 10.1029/2001JD000960.

Marion, G.M., et al. 1997. Open-top designs for manipulating field temperature in high-latitude ecosystems. Global Change Biology, 3 (suppl.1): 20-32.

Moore, T.R., et al. 1999. Litter decomposition rates in Canadian forests. Global Change Biology. 5: (1) 75-82.

New MG. 2005. Arctic climate change with a 2°C global warming. In: Rosenstrater, L.D. (ed.). Evidence and implications of dangerous climate change in the arctic. WWF, Oslo, 1-5.

Phoenix, G.K., Lee, J.A. 2004. Predicting impacts of Arctic climate change: past lessons and future challenges. Ecological Research, 19: 65-74.

Plaxton, William;Podestá, Florencio. 2006. The Functional Organization and Control of Plant Respiration. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 25(2): 159-198.

Preston, C.,et al. 2006. Chemistry, and sensitivity to climate change of dead organic matter along the Canadian Boreal Forest Transect Case Study. Climatic Change, 74 (1-3): 223-251.

Richardson, E.;Stirling, I.;Kochtubajda, B. 2007. The effects of forest fires on polar bear maternity denning habitat in western Hudson Bay. Polar Biology, 30(3): 369-378.

Richardson, S.J., et al. 2002. How do nutrients and warming impact on plant communities and insect herbivores? A 9-year study from a sub-arctic heath. J. Ecol., 90: 544-556.

Roots, E.F. 1989. Climate change: high latitude regions. Climate change 15: 223-253.

Rouse, Wayne R. et al.  1997. Effects of climate change on the fresh waters of arctic and subarctic North America. Hydrological Processes 11: 873-902.

Ryan, K.C. 1989. Climate change, fire and natural vegetation: implications for wilderness areas. Wilderness and Wildfire. Misc. Publication 50, Misoula, Montana, University of Montana School of Forestry.  pp.18-21

Scott, Daniel, and Suffling, Roger (eds.). 2000. Climate change and Canada's national park system : a screening level assessment. Prepared by the Adaptation & Impacts Research Group, Environment Canada and the Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo. Ottawa. Parks Canada.

Scott, Daniel J. 2003. Climate change and Canada's national park system: scenarios & impacts. Prepared by the Adaptation & Impacts Research Group, Environment Canada and the Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo. Halifax. Parks Canada, Atlantic Region

Singh, T., and Higginbotham, K.O. 1988. An overview of the effects of climate change and climatic variability on forest vegetation in Western Canada. Impact of climate variability and change on the Canadian Prairies. Alberta Environment, Edmonton, 255-274.

Straussfogel, Debra. 2006. Exploring the Theoretical Interface of Climate Change and Resource Dependency: Application to the Vulnerability of Boreal Forest Regions. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11(4): 911-931.

Streck, Charlotte and Sebastian M. Scholz. 2006. The role of forests in global climate change: whence we come and where we go. International Affairs, 82(5): 861-879.

Wall, Geoffrey, (ed.). 1993. Impacts of climate change on resource management in the North . Meeting on Northern Climate (5th : 1992 : Whitehorse, Yukon). Dept. of Geography, University of Waterloo.

Weller, G. and Lange, M. 1999. Impacts of global climate change in the arctic regions. International Arctic Science Committee, Center for Global Change and Arctic System Research, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, USA, pp. 1–59.

Zoltai, S.C. 1994. Impact of climate change on Canadian peatlands. Pages 315-319 in: Mires and Man. Mire Conservation in a Densely Populated Country: the Swiss Experience. A. Grunig (ed.). Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf.

Zoltai, S.C. and Martikainen P.J. 1996. Estimated extent of forested peatlands and their role in the global carbon cycle. Pages 47-58 in: Forest Ecosystems, Forest Management and the Global Carbon Cycle. M.J. Apps and D.T. Price (eds.). NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series, Vol. I40, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.

 

Bibliography of rare arctic plant species

Argus, G.W., and K.M. Pryer. 1990. Rare vascular plants in Canada: Our natural heritage. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 191 p. + maps.

Brysting A.K. et al. 2003. Dupontia (Poaceae) in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany, 81(8): 769-779.

Douglas, G.W., G.W. Argus, H.L. Dickson, and D.F. Brunton. 1981. The rare vascular plants of the Yukon. Syllogeus No. 28. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 61 p. + maps.

Douglas, G.W., G.W. Argus, H.L. Dickson, and D.F. Brunton, 1981. Les plantes vasculaires rares du Yukon. Ottawa, Musees Nationaux du Canada, 61+ p.

Kjølner S. et al. 2004. Amplified fragment length polymorphism versus random amplified polymorphic DNA markers: clonal diversity in Saxifraga cernua. Molecular Ecology, 13(1): 81-86.

McJannet, C.L., Argus, G.W., and Cody, W.J. 1995. Rare vascular plants in the Northwest Territories. Syllogeus no.73. Canadian Museum of Nature. Ottawa.

Murray, D.F. 1980. Threatened and endangered plants of Alaska. U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management. 59 p.

Murray, D.F. and R. Lipkin. 1987. Candidate threatened and endangered plants of Alaska with comments on other rare plants. Univ. of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, AK. 76 p.

Talbot, S. S., B. A. Yurtsev, D. F. Murray, G. W. Argus, C. Bay and A. Elvebakk. 1999. Atlas of the rare endemic vascular plants of the arctic. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Technical Report Number 3. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska, 99503, iv + 73 p.

Tate, Douglas. 2003. Status and occurrence of Nahanni Aster (Symphyotricum nahanniense) in Nahanni National Park Reserve and vicinity. Parks Canada (not published?). ARI file# 12 402 687*.

 

Bibliography of invasive plant species in the arctic

Cody, William. J., and Talbot, Stephen, S. 1978. Vascular plant range extensions to the Heart Lake area, District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 92(2): 137-143.

Cody, W.J. 1978. Range extensions and comments on the vascular flora of the continental Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 92: 144-150.

Cody, W. J., K. L. MacInnes, J. Cayouette, and S. Darbyshire. 2000. Alien and Invasive Native Vascular Plants Along the Norman Wells Pipeline, District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Canadian Field- Naturalist 114 (1): 126-137.

Hustich, I. 1971. The introduced flora element in central Quebec-Labrador peninsula. Naturaliste Canadien 98: 425-441.

Rabeler, R. K. and J. W. Thieret. 1997. Sagina (Caryophyllaceae) range extensions in Canada: S. japonica new to Newfoundland; S. procumbens new to the Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 111(2): 309-310.

Wein, Ross W. 1993. Non-native vascular plants of northwestern Canada - an initial survey. A research report to: Yukon, Science Institute of the NWT, and Inuvialuit Land Administration.

 

Bibliography of Arctic Plants

Abbot, Sean P. 1989. [collection of fungal flora in the southwestern NWT]. Report submitted to the Science Institute of the NWT.

Abbott, R.J., et al. 2000. Molecular analysis of plant refugia in the arctic. Science, 289: 1343-1346.

Aiken, S.G., Consaul, L.L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1996a. Grasses of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: a Delta database for interactive identification and illustrated information retrieval. Can. J. Bot. 74: 1812-1825.

Aiken, S.G., Consaul, L.L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1996b. Grasses of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. www.keil.ukans.edu/delta.

 Aiken, Susan G. et al. 1998. Saxifragaceae of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: a contribution to a DELTA database for interactive identification and illustrated information retrieval. Can. J. Bot.76(12):2020–2036.

Aiken, Susan G. et al. 1999. Flora of the Canadian Arctic archipelago: (plants collected in Aulavik National Park, 29 June – 13 July, 1999, during a Parks Canada patrol lead by Andrew Lawrence). [Canadian Museum of Nature] In: Sowerby, Engl. Bot. 35: t. 2516. 1813. ARI file# 12 402 616. http://www.mun.ca/biology/delta/arcticf/

Aiken, S.G.,LeBlanc, M.C.,Boles, R.L. 2005. Growth forms and sepal hairs of the purple saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia: Saxifragaceae) in North America related to chromosome records and DNA information. Can. J. Bot., 83(9): 1088-1095.

Alpine Environmental. 2004. Post construction revegetation and soil monitoring report 2004, Paramount Shiha Pipeline. Project No. FN-01019-PL.01. Report submitted to ARI (file# 12 402 641)*.

Amiro, B.D., et al. 2001. Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959-1999, Can. J. For. Res., 31: 512-525.

Anderson, J. H. and Belon, A. E.   1973. A New Vegetation Map of the Western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, Based on ERTS-1 Imagery.  Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Scientific Report on NASA Contract NAS 5-21833.

Argus, G. W., 1973. The genus Salix in Alaska and the Yukon. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Publications in Botany (2): 249 p.

Barrett, P.E., and Teeri, J.A. 1973. Vascular plants of the Truelove Inlet region, Devon Island. Arctic 26(1): 58-67.

Bay, C. 1993. Taxa of vascular plants new to the flora of Greenland. Nord. J. Bot. 13: 247-252.

Bean, David, and Henry, Greg. 2001. Landscape-Level Patterns of Plant Growth and

Diversity in a High Arctic Oasis. Master’s Thesis. University of British Columbia.

Bean, David. 2002. The spatial relationships among vegetation phenology, plant community composition and environment at a high arctic oasis. Master’s thesis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia.

Beckett, E. 1959. Adventive plants at Churchill, Manitoba. Can. Field-Nat. 73: 169-173

Bégin, C. 1991. Analyse architecturale et dendroécologique d’une pessière à lichens àla limite des forêts. Ph.D. thesis, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.

Beilman, David W. 2001. Plant community and diversity change due to localized permafrost dynamics in bogs of western Canada. Can. J. Bot. Vol. 79 (8) 983-993.

Beilman, David W. 2001. Localized permafrost peatlands in boreal western Canada: distributions, plant communities and peatland development. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Biology, University of Alberta.

Bell, K.L. and Bliss, L.C. 1980. Plant reproduction in a high arctic environment. Arctic and Alpine Research. 12: 1-10.

Bennett, B.A., 2000. Vascular plants expected in Vuntut National Park. 35 p.

Bergeron, J.F., Svoboda, J. 1989. Plant communities of Sverdrup Pass, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. The Muskox, 37: 76-85.

Bergeron, J.F. 1988. Plant communities of Sverdrup Pass (79°N), Ellesmere Island, N.W.T., Canada. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Botany, University of Toronto.

Black, R.A., and Bliss, L.C. 1980. Reproductive ecology of Picea Mariana (Mill.) BSP., at the treeline near Inuvik, N.W.T., Canada. Ecol. Monogr. 50: 331-354.

Blake, W. Jr. 1972. Climatic implications of radiocarbon dated driftwood in the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Arctic Canada. Climatic changes in the Arctic areas in the last 10,000 years, Acta Univ. Ouluensis, Ser. A, Scient. Rep. Nat. 3 Geol., 1:77-104.

Bledsoe, C., Klein, P., and Bliss, L.C. 1989. A survey of mycorrhizal plants on Truelove Lowland, Devon Island, N.W.T., Canada. Can. J. Bot. 68: 1848-1856.

Bliss, L.C. 1971. Arctic and alpine plant life cycles. Am. Rev. Ecol. And Systematics 2: 405-438

Bliss, L.C. (ed.). 1977. Truelove lowland, Devon Island, Canada: a high arctic ecosystem. Edmonton, University of Alberta Press.

Bliss, L. C.,  and Gold, W. G.1999.Vascular plant reproduction, establishment, and growth and the effects of cryptogamic crusts within a polar desert ecosystem, Devon Island, N.W.T., Canada. Can. J. Bot.77(5):623–636.

Bockheim, J.G. et al. 2003. Factors affecting the distribution of Populus balsamifera on the north slope of Alaska, USA. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research, 35: 331-340.

Bowden, Wray M., Cody, W. J. 1961. Recognition of Elymus sibiricus L. from Alaska and the District of Mackenzie. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 88, No. 3 (May - Jun., 1961), pp. 153-155.

Boyes, D. 1991. Using remote sensing and a geographic information system to model the potential effects of hydrological modification on vegetation patterns in the MacKenzie Delta, N.W.T. Master’s Thesis. University of Western Ontario.

Brassard, Brian;Chen, Han. 2006. Stand Structural Dynamics of North American Boreal Forests. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 25(2): 115-137.

Brassard, G.R. 1970. The relict occurrence of Seligeria pusilla in Arctic Canada. Can. J. Bot. 18: 617-619.

Brassard, G.R. 1971a. The mosses of northern Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada. I Ecology and phytogeography, with an analysis for the Queen Elizabeth Islands. Bryologist 74: 233-281.

Brassard, G.R. 1971b. The mosses of northern Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada. II Annotated list of taxa. Bryologist 74: 282-311.

Brassard, G.R. and Beschel, R.E. 1968. The vascular flora of Tanqeray Fiord, northern Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. Can. Field-Nat. 82: 103-113.

Brassard, G.R. and Longton, R.E. 1970. The flora and vegetation of Van Hauen Pass, northwestern Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. Can. Field-Nat. 84: 357-364.

Broll, Gabrielle, and Keplin, Beate (eds.). 2005. Mountain ecosystems : studies in treeline ecology. Berlin, New York: Springer. ARI file# 12 402 551*.

Brungs Simard, Hanita, 2001. A fire history study: toward a community protection plan for Fort Smith, NT. MSc.Thesis, University of Alberta. ARI file # 12 402 588* (Fire history, fuel and ecological assessments).

Burt, Page M. 1999. Jericho Diamond Project, environmental baseline studies, 1999 vegetation report. Tahera Corporation. Rankin Inlet, Outcrop Nunavut.

Carriere, Suzanne. 2006. NWT species 2006-2010: general status ranks of wild species in the Northwest Territories. Working Group on General Status of NWT Species, Government of Canada, pp. 60-101. ISBN 0-7708-0148-X. http://www.nwtwildlife.com/monitoring/NWTSpecies.pdf

CAVM team. 2003. Circumpolar arctic vegetation map. 1:7,500,000. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Map No.1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, AK.

Cayoutte, J. 1984. Additions and extensions d’aire dans la flore vasculaire du Nouveau-Quebec. Nat. Can. 111: 263-274.

Chapin, F.S. III, McKendrick, J.D. and Johnson, D.A. 1986. Seasonal changes in carbon fractions in Alaskan tundra plants of differing growth form: implications for herbivory. J. Ecol. 74: 707-731.

Cody, W.J. 1956. New plant records for northern Alberta and southern Mackenzie District. Can. Field-Nat. 70: 101-130.

Cody, W.J. 1961. New plant records for Upper Mackenzie River valley, Mackenzie District, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 75: 55-69.

Cody, W.J. 1963. A contribution to the knowledge of the flora of southwestern Mackenzie District, NWT. Can. Field-Nat. 77: 108-123.

Cody, W.J., and Porsild, A.E. 1968. Additions to the flora of the continental Northwest Territories, Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 82: 263-275.

Cody, W.J. 1978. Range extensions and comments on the vascular flora of the continental Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 92: 144-150.

Cody, W.J. 1979. Vascular plants of restricted range in the continental Northwest Territories, Canada. Syllogeus No. 23. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 57 p.

Cody, W.J., Scotter, G.W. and Zoltai, S.C. 1984. Additions to the vascular plant flora of the Bathurst Inlet region, Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 98:171-177.

Cody, W.J., Scotter, G.W. and Zoltai, S.C. 1984. Additions to the vascular plant flora of Bylot Island, Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 98:485-488.

Cody, W.J., Scotter, G.W. and Zoltai, S.C. 1989. Vascular plant flora of the Wager Bay region, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 103:551-559.

Cody, W.J., G.W. Scotter and S.C. Zoltai. 1992. Vascular plant flora of the Melville Hills region, Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 106:87-99.

Cody, W.J. 1994. The flora of the Yukon Territory: additions, range extensions and comments. Canadian Field-Naturalist 108(4):428-476.

Cody, W.J. 1996. Flora of the Yukon Territory. NRC Research Press, Ottawa.

Cody, W. J., C. E. Kennedy, and B. Bennett, 1998. New Records of Vascular Plants in the Yukon Territory. Canadian Field-Naturalist 112 (2): 289-328.

Consaul, Laurie L., and Gillespie, Lynn J. 2001. A re-evaluation of species limits in Canadian Arctic Island Puccinellia (Poaceae): resolving key characters. Can.J. Bot. 79: 927-956.

Copland, Elizabeth, Assessment of local plants. ARI file# 12 402 570. No published report. Works for the Nunavut Impact Review Board.

Copland, Ian. 1994. Seaweed assessment. Inventory of the local seaweed stocks found within a 12 - mile radius of Whale Cove. Kivalliq Land and Sea Resources. ARI file# 12 402 559. No published report.

Cordes, Lawrence D., and Pearce, Cheryl M. 1979. Vegetation change in the Peace-Athabasca Delta : 1977-1978. Calgary, Parks Canada.

Cordes, Lawrence D., and Pearce, Cheryl M. 1978. Vegetation change in the Peace-Athabasca Delta : 1976-1977. Calgary, Parks Canada.

Cordes, Lawrence D., and Pearce, Cheryl M. 1977. Vegetation change in the Peace-Athabasca Delta : 1975-1976. Calgary, Parks Canada.

Corns, I.G.W. 1974. Arctic plant communities east of the Mackenzie Delta. Can. J. Bot. 52: pp.1731-1745.

COSEWIC. 2004. List of Canadian Species at risk. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

Delcourt, P.A. and Delcourt, H.R. 1987. Late-Quaternary dynamics of temperate forests: applications of paleocology to issues of global environment change. Quaternary Science Reviews. 6: 129–146.

EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd. 2006. Yellowknife Gold Project: 2005 ecological land classification-field report and rare plant survey. Report 1740180.001 submitted to ARI (file# 12 402 720)

Ecoregions Working Group (1989). Ecoclimatic regions of Canada, first approximation. Ecoregions Working Group of Canada Committee on Ecological Land Classification. Ecological Land Classification Series, No. 23, Sustainable Development Branch,

Canadian Wildlife Service, Conservation and Protection, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Edlund, S.A. 1980. Vegetation of Lougheed Island, District of Franklin. Current Research, part A. Geological Survey Canada Paper. 80-1A:329-333.

Edlund, S.A. 1983. Reconnaissance vegetation studies on Western Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Current Research, part B, GSC, Paper 83-1B, p. 75-81.

Edlund, S.A. and Alt, B.T. 1989. Regional congruence of vegetation and summer climate patterns in Queen Elizabeth Islands, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic 42(1): 3-23.

Edlund, S.A. 1990. Bioclimate zones in the Canadian Archipelago. C.R. Harrington (ed.), Canada’s missing dimension: science and history in the Canadian arctic islands. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa. p.421-441.

Egan, R.S. 1987. A fifth checklist of the lichen forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental united states and Canada. (and “changes to…”). Bryologist 90:77-173, 92: 68-72, 93: 211-219, 94: 396-400.

Englefield, Peter. 1994. Tree ring analysis of permafrost degradation in peatlands. Report to Science Institute of the NWT (file# 12 402 350).

Epstein, Howie. 2003. Dynamics of vegetation and soils in arctic tundra ecosystems. http://www.geobotany.uaf.edu/cryoturbation/field03/EpsteiH03Banks.pdf

Epstein, H. E., et al. 2004. The nature of spatial transitions in the Arctic. Journal of Biogeography, 31(12): 1917-1933.

Foote, Joan. 1979. Classification, description and dynamics of plant communities following fire in the taiga of interior Alaska.  Fairbanks, Alaska: Bureau of Land Management-Alaska. 

Giddings, J.L. 1947. Mackenzie River Delta chronology. Tree-Ring Bulletin 13(4): 26-29

Gillespie, Lynn J., Consaul, Laurie L., and Aiken, Susan G. 1997. Hybridization and the origin of the arctic grass Poa Harzii (Poaceae): evidence from morphology and chloroplast DNA restriction site data. Can. J. Bot. 75: 1978-1997.

Gillespie, Lynn J. and Boles, Ruben. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships and infraspecific variation in Canadian Arctic Poa based on chloroplast DNA restriction site data. Can. J. Bot. 79: 679-701.

Golder Associates. 2002. Cameron Hills gathering system and transborder pipeline right-of-way revegetation, permafrost and access monitoring. Report to Paramount Resources 022-2268 submitted to ARI (file#12 402 674).

Golder Associates. 2003. Cameron Hills gathering system and transborder pipeline right-of-way 2003 revegetation, permafrost and access monitoring. Report to Paramount Resources 03-1322-107 submitted to ARI (file#12 402 674).

Golder Associates. 2003. Vegetation monitoring on the Chevron pipeline right-of-way, Fort Liard, Northwest Territories. Report to Chevron Canada Resources 022-2509 submitted to ARI (file#?)

Golder Associates. 2004. Environmental surveys at Fortune Minerals Limited – Nico deposit, 1998-2004 [vegetation survey]. Report submitted to ARI (file# 12 402 608, 12 402 688).

Graham, S. and Turkington, R. 2000. Population dynamics response of Lupinus arcticus to fertilization, clipping, and neighbour removal in the understory of the boreal forest. Canadian Journal of Botany, 78: 753-758.

Greene, David F., 1983. Permafrost, fire, and the regeneration of white spruce at arctic treeline near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. MSc. Thesis, University of Calgary.

Greene, David F. 1983. Permafrost, fire, and the regeneration of white spruce at tree-line near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada.  Permafrost Fourth International Conference: Proceedings; in Fairbanks, Alaska. Washington D.C.National Academy Press.  pp374-379.

Green, D.S. and Hawkins, C.D.B. 2005. Competitive interactions in sub-boreal birch-spruce forests differ on opposing slope aspects. Forest Ecology and Management, 214: 1-10.

Greene, D.F., and V. Crisfield. 2006. Final report on tree regeneration on seismic lines in the uplands and Delta near Inuvik. Gwich’in Renewable Resource Board, Inuvik, NWT.

Griller, Natalie. 2001. Short and Long Term Recovery of Plant Communities Following Intensive Grazing by Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in the Low Arctic of Nunavut, Canada. Master’s thesis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia.

Groffman, P., et al. 2006. Ecological thresholds: the key to successful environmental management or an important concept with no practical application? Ecosystems, 9: 1-13.

Gould, William A. 1992. Macrolichens of the Coppermine, Hood, and Thomsen rivers, Northwest Territories, Canada. Master’s Thesis, University of Minnesota, Department of Plant Biology. (and in Bryologist 97 (1): 42-46 [1994]).

Gould, William A. 1994. Five lichens new to Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Evansia 11(1):17-20.

Haag, R. W. 1973. Energy budget changes following surface disturbance to two northern vegetation types. Botanical Studies of Natural and Man-Modified Habitats in the Mackenzie Valley, Eastern Mackenzie Delta Region and the Arctic Islands, edited by L. C. Bliss. ( Task Force on Northern Oil Development. Environmental-Social Committee. Report no.73-43) pp.6-26.

Halliwell, D., Apps, M.J. 1997. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS): biometry and auxiliary sites: locations and descriptions, Canadian Forest Service, NRCan.

Hawkings, J., 1995. Vegetation mapping, Old Crow Flats. Unpublished reports and maps.

Hawkings, J. and C. Eckert, 1999. Satellite maps of vegetation class (Web Page accessed 2000). Environment Canada, Taiga Net, Wetlands, Vegclass, available at: http://www.taiga.net/wetlands/oldcrow/vegclass.html.

Hedderson, Terry A. The Vascular Flora. Joint Services expedition to Borup Fiord, Ellesmere Island, interim report, p.31-33.

Hedderson, Terry A. Bryological Research. Joint Services expedition to Borup Fiord, Ellesmere Island, interim report, p.36-37.

Henry, G.H.R., 1998. Environmental influences on the structure of sedge meadows in the Canadian High Arctic. Plant Ecology, 134: 119-129.

Hermanutz, Luise, and Innes, David. 1990. A study of reproduction of moss campion (Silene acaulis). Non-technical research summary submitted to the Science Institute of the NWT (file# 12 402 453*).

Hettinger, L., A. Janz, and R.W. Wein, 1973. Vegetation of the northern Yukon Territory. Canadian Arctic Gas Study Limited: Alaskan Arctic Gas Study Company, Arctic Gas. Biological report series 1: v.p.

Hewitt, Nina. 1992. Variation in performance, cover, and density of Salix arctica on raised beach ridges of Truelove lowland, Devon Island, N.W.T. Undergraduate thesis, Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario.

Holmes, Aaron, [and English, M.]. [2001?] Energy balance, soil moisture and chemistry related to dwarf birch productivity in an arctic tundra site. Undergraduate research. Wilfrid Laurier University. (not published?)

Horton, Diana G. 1979. Encalypta vittiana sp. nov. and E. flowersiana sp. nov. from North America. The Bryologist, 82 (3): 368-381.

Hultén, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA. 1,008 p.

Hultén, E. 1973. Supplement to flora of Alaska and neighboring territories: A study in the flora of Alaska and the transberingian connection. Bot. Not. 126:459-512.

Hustich, I. 1972. On the phytogeography of the Quebec-Labrador peninsula III. Notes on introduced species. Commentationes Biologicae 54. Societas Scientarum Fennica, Helsinki-Helsingfors.

Jagerbrand, A.K. 2005. Subarctic bryophyte ecology: phenotypic variation and responses to simulated environmental change. Ph.D. dissertation, Gotenberg University.

Jeffrey, W.W. 1961. Notes on plant occurrence along lower Liard River, Northwest Territories. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 171: 32-115.

Jetty, Tammy. 1991. Spectral response pattern of Canadian high arctic tundra cover types. Report submitted to SINT (file# 12 402 482)

Johnstone, J., and Henry, G.H.R., 1997. Retrospective analysis of growth and reproduction in Cassiope tetragona and relations to climate in the Canadian High Arctic. Arctic and Alpine Research, 29: 459-469.

Johnstone, Jill F. 1995. Responses of Cassiope Tetragona, a high arctic evergreen dwarf shrub, to variations in growing season temperature and growing season length at Alexandra Fiord, Ellesmere Island.Master’s thesis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia.

Jonasson, S. 1992. Plant responses to fertilization and species removal in tundra related to community structure and clonality. Oikos. 63: 420–429.

Jones, Brenda ... [et al.]. 2003. Climate change and Canada's national parks. Parks Canada

Jones, Glenda A. 1997. Primary Plant Succession on the Twin Glacier Foreland, Alexandra Fjord, Ellesmere Island, Canadian High Arctic.Master’s thesis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia.

 Jorgenson, J. Buchholtz, C.A. 2005. Eighteen years of vegetation monitoring in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Proceedings of the SEARCH Open Science Meeting, 27-30 October, 2003, ARCUS, Fairbanks, AK.

Kade, Anja. 2003. Experimental alteration of plant canopy and the effects on cryotubation regime. http://www.geobotany.uaf.edu/cryoturbation/field03/KadeA03Banks.pdf

Kindl, E.M. 1921. Mackenzie River driftwood. Geogr. Rev. 11: 50-53.

Knill, C.F. 1988. Spatial and temporal patterns of the vegetation on raised beaches of Truelove Lowland, Devon Island, N.W.T. Undergraduate Thesis, London, Dept. of Geography, UWO.

Kurz, W.A., Apps, M.J., Webb, T.M., and McNamee, P.J. 1992. The carbon budget of the Canadian forest sector: Phase I. Forestry Canada, Northwest Reg. North. For. Cent., Edmonton, Alberta, Inf. Rep. NOR-X-326.

Lambert, J.D.H. 1972. Botanical changes resulting from seismic and drilling operation, Mackenzie Delta area. ALUR report 1971-72.

Landhauser, S.A. 2000. How old are the white spruce trees in the delta really? Inuvik Region Final Report.

Laprise, D. and Payette, S. 1988. Evolution recente d’une tourbiere a palses (Quebec subarctique): analyse cartographique et dendrochronologique. Can. J. Bot. 66: 2217-2227.

Larsen, J.A. 1965. The vegetation of the Ennadai Lake area NWT: Studies in subarctic and arctic bioclimatology. Ecological Monographs 35:37-59.

Larsen, J.A. 1971. Vegetation of Ft. Reliance, N.W.T.. Can. Field-Nat. 85(2): 147-178.

Larsen, James Arthur. 1989. The northern forest border in Canada and Alaska : biotic communities and ecological relationships. New York, NY : Springer-Verlag. Ecological Studies, v. 70.

Larter, Nicholas C., and Nagy, John A. 2001. Seasonal and annual variability in the quality of important forage plants on Banks Island, Canadian High Arctic. Applied Vegetation Science, 4: 115-128.

Lemieux, Christopher J.;Scott, Daniel J. 2005. Climate change, biodiversity conservation and protected area planning in Canada. The Canadian Geographer, 49(4): 384-397.

Levesque, E., Henry, G.H.R. and Svoboda, J. 1997. Phenological and growth responses of Papaver radicatum long altitudinal gradients in the Canadian High Arctic. Global Change Biology. 3(suppl.): 125-145.

MacDonald, G. M. 1983. Holocene Vegetation History of the Upper Natla River Area, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research, 15 ( 2): 169-180.

Maycock, P.F. & D. Fahselt. 1992. Vegetation of stressed calcareous screes and slopes in Sverdrup Pass, Ellesmere Island, Canada. Can. J. Bot. 70: 2359-2377.

McKane, Robert B., et al. 1997. Reconstruction and analysis of historical changes in carbon storage in arctic tundra. Ecology, 78(4):1188-1198.

McLachlan, K.I., Aiken, S.G., Lefkovitch, L.P., and Edlund, S.A. 1989. Grasses of the Queen Elizabeth Islands. Can. J. Bot. 67: 2088-2105

Melnychuk, Michael C., and Krebs, Charles J. 2005. Residual effects of NPK fertilization on shrub growth in a Yukon boreal forest. Can. J. Bot.83(4):399–404.

Moran, V. M. and R. Meyers. 1996. Results of the 1996 field season for Oxytropis arctica barnebyana. Unpublished report by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services, Anchorage. 15 P.

Muc, M. Freedman, B. and Svoboda, J. 1989. Vascular plant communites of a polar desert oasis at Alexandra Fiord (79°N), Ellesmere Island, Canada. Can. J. Bot. 67:1126-1136.

Mulligan, G.A. and A.E. Porsild. 1969. A new species of Lesquerella (Cruciferae) in northwestern Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 47:215-216.

Mulligan, G.A. 1972. Cytotaxonomic studies of Draba species in Canada and Alaska: D. oligosperma and D. incerta. Canadian Journal of Botany 50: 1763-1766.

Mulligan, G.A. 1979. Four new species of Draba in northwestern North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 57:1873-1875.

Murray, G., P.C. Boxall, and R.W. Wein. 2005. Distribution, abundance, and utilization of wild berries by the Gwich'in people in the Mackenzie River Delta region. Economic Botany 59: 174-184.


Nesom, Guy L., and Murray, David F. 2004. Notes on North American arctic and boreal species of Erigeron (Asteraceae: astereae). SIDA 21(1): 41–57.

Nicholson, B.J., and Gignac, L.D. 1995. Ecotope dimensions of peatland bryophyte indicator species along gradients in the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada. The Bryologist 98: 437-451.

Nicolson, C., 1999. Outputs 5: Vegetation changes (Web Page accessed 2000). In The Synthesis Model: Sustainability of Arctic Communities Project, Taiga Net, Sustain, available at: http://www.taiga.net/sustain/lib/models/synthesis/sld014.htm.

Nicholson, Heather, C. 2002. Arsenic Plants Important to Two Yukon First Nations : Impacts of Gold Mining and Reclamation Practices. Master’s thesis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia.

Nowak, S., G.P. Kershaw and L.J. Kershaw (2001). Plant diversity and cover after wildfire on anthropogenically-disturbed and undisturbed sites in subarctic upland Picea mariana forest. Arctic.

Owen, Elliot, Semple, John C., and Baum, Bernard R. 2006. A multivariate morphometric analysis of the Symphyotrichum boreale – S. Nahaniense – S. welshii complex (Astreraceae: Astereae). Can. J. Bot. 84: 1282-1297.

Ovenden, L. E., 1982. Vegetation history of a polygonal peatland, northern Yukon. Boreas 11 (3): 209-224

Ovenden, L. E. and G. R. Brassard, 1989. Wetland vegetation near Old Crow, northern Yukon. Canadian Journal of Botany 67 (4): 954-960.

Pearce, Cheryl M. 1986. An analysis of plant colonization and early succession on the Mackenzie River Delta, NWT. Report to SINT (file# 12 402 342)

Pearce, Cheryl M. [198?] Monitoring white spruce communities on the Mackenzie Delta with satellites. Mackenzie Delta: Environmental interactions and implications of development: proceedings of the workshop on the Mackenzie Delta. 17-18 October, 1989, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Marsh, P., and Ommanney, C.S.L. [Eds.]
Saskatoon, Sask. National Hydrology Research Institute, 1991. pp.107-120

Pearce, C. M.; McLennan, D.; Cordes, L. D. 1988. The evolution and maintenance of white spruce woodlands on the Mackenzie Delta, N. W. T., Canada. Holarctic Ecology. 11(4): 248-258.

Pier, Dawn. [2001?] Factors affecting PCB uptake by arctic vascular plants. Master’s Thesis. Queen’s University.

Piercey-Normore, Michele D. 2005. Lichens from the Hudson Bay Lowlands: northeastern coastal regions of Wapusk National Park in Manitoba. Can. J. Bot.83(8):1029–1038.

Polunin, A.E. 1940. Botany of the Canadian Eastern Arctic. National Museums of Canada, bull.  92.

Polunin, A.E., 1959. Circumpolar Arctic Flora. Oxford. Clarendon Press.

Porsild, A.E. 1943. Materials for a flora of the Continental Northwest Territories of Canada. Sargentia 4: 1-79.

Porsild, A.E. 1951. Botany of southeastern Yukon adjacent to the Canol Road. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 121: 1-400.

Porsild, A.E. 1955. The vascular plants of the western Canadian arctic archipelago. Bull. Natl. Mus. Can. No. 135

Porsild, A.E. 1957. Illustrated flora of the Canadian arctic archipelago. Bull. Natl. Mus. Can. No. 146.

Porsild, A.E. 1964. Illustrated flora of the Canadian arctic archipelago, 2nd rev.ed. Bull. Natl. Mus. Can. No. 146.

Porsild, A.E. and Cody, W.J. 1968. Checklist of the vascular plants of continental Northwest Territories, Canada. Plant Research Institute. Canada, Department of Agriculture.

Porsild, A.E. and Cody, W.J. 1980. Vascular plants of continental Northwest Territories, Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.

Porsild, A. E. The Alpine flora of the east slope of Mackenzie mountains, Northwest territories. Canada. National museum, Ottawa. Bulletin.

Preston, Caroline M., Trofymow, J.A. (Tony). 2000. Variability in litter quality and its relationship to litter decay in Canadian forests. Can. J. Bot. 78: 1269-1287.

Printzen, Christian, and Tor Tonsberg. 1999. The Lichen Genus Biatora in Northwestern North America. The Bryologist, 102 (4): 692-713.

Raup, H.M. 1936. Phytogeographic studies in the Athabasca-Great Slave Lake region, I. Catalogue of the vascular plants. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 17: 180-315.

Raup, H.M. 1946. Phytogeographic studies in the Athabasca-Great Slave Lake region, II. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 27: 1-85.

Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development (RWED). 2000. General status ranks of wild species in the Northwest Territories.

Ritchie, J.C. 1960. The vegetation of northern Manitoba V. Establishing the major zonation. Arctic 13:211-229

Ritchie, J.C. 1962. A geobotanical survey of northern Manitoba. AINA Tech. Paper 9.

Ritchie, J.C. 1984. Past and present vegetation of the far Northwest of Canada. Toronto, University of Toronto Press.

Robinson, S. D. and T. R. Moore.2000. The influence of permafrost and fire upon carbon accumulation in high boreal peatlands, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 32 (2): 155-166)

Russell, D.E., W.A. Nixon, and A.M. Martell, 1992. Vegetation communities within the Yukon range of the Porcupine Caribou Herd. Pacific and Yukon Region. Canadian Wildlife Service, Technical Report Series 139: 50 p.

Schuster, R.M., Steere, W.C., and Thomson, J.W. 1959. The terrestrial cryptogams of northern Ellesmere Island. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.

Schwarz, Arthur G. 1983. Comparative ecophysiology of C3 and C4 grasses at the northern limits of the C4 grass range. Report submitted to SINT (file # 12 402 331)

Scotter, G.W. 1966. A contribution to the flora of the eastern arm of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 80: 1-18.

Scotter, G.W. and Cody, William. J. 1974. Vascular plants of Nahanni National Park and vicinity, Northwest Territories. Naturaliste Canadien 101: 861-891.

Scotter, George W. 1974. Distribution of Pine (Pinus spp.) in the South Nahanni and Flat Rivers Region, Northwest Territories. Can. J. For. Res. 4(4): 555-557.

Seccombe-Hett, Pippa. 2003. Preliminary investigations into white spruce growth and regeneration rates in response to linear disturbances within the Mackenzie River Delta. Gwich’in Renewable Resource Board Report 03-03. (file# 12 402 629).

Shaver, G.R., Laundre, J. 1997. Exsertion, elongation, and senescence of leaves of Eriophorum vaginatum and Carex bigelowii in Northern Alaska. Global Change Biology, 3 (Suppl. 1): 146-157.

Sheard, J.W., and Geale, D.W. 1983. Vegetation studies at Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, N.W.T. II: Vegetation-environment relationships. Can. J. Bot. 61: 1618-1636.

Sheath, Robert G. and Steinman, Alan D. 1982. Checklist of freshwater algae of the Northwest Territories, Canada. Can. J. Bot. 60(10): 1964-1997.

Simmons, H.G. 1906. The vascular plants in the flora of Ellesmereland. Rpt. Of the 2nd Norwegian Arctic Exped. No.2. Society of Arts and Sciences of Kristiana.

Skre, Oddvar. 1991. Physiology of plant survival under cold conditions, with particular reference to dark respiration as a factor limiting growth at timberline: a literature review. Norsk institutt for skogforskning. Meddelelser fra Skogforsk; 44.1.

Skre, Oddvar. 1991. Temperature effects on the growth of mountain birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.) and maple (Acer platanoides L.) seedlings in continuous light. Norsk institutt for skogforskning. Meddelelser fra Skogforsk; 44.5.

Skre, Oddvar. 1991. Growth experiments with seedlings of mountain birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and lowland birch (Betula pendula Roth.) grown at varying temperature, light and daylength. Norsk institutt for skogforskning. Meddelelser fra Skogforsk; 44.6.

Skre, Oddvar. 1991. Chemical composition of mountain birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), and lowland birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings, grown at varying temperature, light and photoperiod Norsk institutt for skogforskning. Meddelelser fra Skogforsk; 44.8.

Soper, J.H. and Powell, J.M. Botanical studies in the Lake Hazen region, northern Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.

Sparling, Bradley K. 2002. Estimating the timing of key growing season events in Tuktut Nogait National Park using AVHRR satellite imagery. Master’s Thesis. University of Manitoba.

Speller, S. Donald. 1979. [vegetation studies of the] Environmental research program for the ’79 field season in the Baker Lake area. Urangesellschaft Canada Ltd. (file # 12 402 260)

Smith, Lisa. 2006. Establishment of permanent monitoring plots for growth and yield National Forest Inventory and cumulative impact monitoring. Annual Report of the Western NWT Biophysical Study 2004/2005. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Canada. ARI file# 12 402 584. Lisa Smith, Inventory Forester, Forest Management Division, ENR, Hay River, NT. lisa_smith@gov.nt.ca

Solheim, B., et al. 2002. The nitrogen fixation potential of arctic cryptogam species is influenced by enhanced UV-B radiation. Oecologia, 133: 90-93.

Straley, G. B. 1986. Wild Bergamot, Monarda fistulosa (Lamiaceae) new to the Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 100 (3): 380 - 381.

Strang, R.M., 1973. Studies of vegetation, landform and permafrost in the Mackenzie Valley : some case histories of disturbance. Ottawa , Information Canada, 49 p.

Streisinger, Erwin. 1985. The Boothia - Zenith Point expedition. Report submitted to the Science institute of the NWT (file #12 402 298).

Swanson, D. K. 1996. Susceptibility of permafrost soils to deep thaw after forest fires in interior Alaska, U.S.A., and some ecologic implications. Arctic and Alpine Research  28(no.2):217-227.

Talbot, Stephen, S. 1978. Vegetation of the Heart Lake area, District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Botany, University of Alberta, Edmonton.

Talbot, S. S. 1987. Bryophytes from Nahanni National Park and vicinity, Northwest Territories, Canada. Can. J. Bot.65(3):592-597.

Taylor, Cindey Squires, Vegetation database of the Mackenzie Valley. (not published?) ARI file# 12 402 433

Thannheiser, Dietbert, 1972. New plant records from Boothia Isthmus and King William Island, NWT, Canada. Polarforschung 42(1): 50-55.

Thannheiser, Dietbert, 1976. Beach and bog vegetation on the Western Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Svalbard. Polarforschung 46(2): 71-82.

Thannheiser, Dietbert, 1986. Plant communities of the Western Canadian Arctic Archipelago and their distribution patterns. Report submitted to the SINT (file# 12 402 057)

Thannheiser, Dietbert, 1986. Floristische Studien auf Victoria Island, N.W.T. (Kanada). Polarforschung 56(1/2): 93-98.

Thieret, J.W. 1961. New plant records for southwestern District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 75: 111-121.

Thieret, J.W. 1962. New plant records from District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 76: 206-208.

Thieret, J.W. 1963. Botanical survey along the Yellowknife highway, Northwest Territories, Canada. I. Catalogue of the flora. Sida 1: 117-170.

Thieret, J.W. 1964. Botanical survey along the Yellowknife highway, Northwest Territories, Canada. II. Vegetation. Sida 1: 187-239.

Thomson, J.W. 1970. Lichens from the vicinity of Coppermine, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 84: 155-164.

Thomson, J.W. 1970. Lichens from the Bathurst Inlet region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Bryologist 86: 14-22.

Thomson, J.W. 1984. American Arctic lichens. Columbia University Press. New York.

Thomson, J.W. 1990. Lichens in the Canadian Arctic Islands. Canada’s missing dimension, vol. 1, p.385-420. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa.

Timoney, K.P., La Roi, G.H., Zoltai, S.C. and Robinson, A.L. 1992. The high subarctic forest-tundra of northwestern Canada: Position, width, and vegetation gradients in relation to climate. Arctic 45:1-9.

Timoney, K.P. and Wein, Ross W. 1991. The areal pattern of burned tree vegetation in the subarctic region of northwestern Canada. Arctic 44(3): 223-230

Timoney, K.P., La Roi, G.H., Zoltai, S.C., and Robinson, A.L. 1993. Vegetation communities and plant distributions and their relationships with parent materials in the forest-tundra of northwestern Canada. Ecography 16:174-188.

Timony, K.P., La Roi, G.H. and Dale, M.R.T. 1993. Subarctic forest-tundra vegetation gradients: The sigmoid wave hypothesis. J. Veg. Sci. 4: 387-394.

Tremblay, N.O., and Schoen, D.J. 1999. Molecular phylogeography of Dryas integrifolia: glacial refugia and postglacial recolonization.

Trindade M., Greene D.F, Gravel M. 2002. Long-distance pollen dispersal of Picea mariana near Inuvik, NWT. Sustainable Forest Management Conference, Edmonton, Alberta.November 13-15, 2002. ARI file# 12 402 685.

Trindade, M., and D.F. Greene. 2003. Long distance pollen dispersal at treeline near inuvik, NWT. Seventh National student conference on Northern Studies. October 24-26, Calgary, Alberta. ARI file# 12 402 685.

Trofymow, J.A., C. Preston, and C. Prescott. 1995. Litter quality and its potential effect on decay rates of materials from Canadian forests. Proceedings. Boreal Forests and Global Change Conference. Sep. 25 30, 1994, Saskatoon, SA. IBFRA. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 82:215 226.

Trofymow, J.A. and CIDET Working Group. 1998 CIDET The Canadian Intersite Decomposition Experiment: Project and site establishment report. Inf. Rep. BC-X-378. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria.

Tsai, Chung-Jui, et al. 2006. Genome-wide analysis of the structural genes regulating defense phenylpropanoid metabolism in Populus. New Phytologist, 172(1): 47-62.

Vitt, Dale H., Horton, Diana G. 1979. Bryophytes new to Alberta, Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories, Canada. The Bryologist, 82 (3): 409-416.

Vitt, Dr. and B.J. Nicholson. 2000. Chapter on the Mackenzie River Basin and the wetlands within, in a book entitled: The World's Largest Wetlands. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Walker D.A., S. K. Short, J. T. Andrews, P. J. Webber. 1981. Late Holocene Pollen and Present-Day Vegetation, Prudhoe Bay and Atigun River, Alaskan North Slope. Arctic and Alpine Research, 13 (2): 153-172.

Walker D.A., J.A. Knudson, H.A. Maier, R.A. Peterson, M.K. Raynolds. 2003. Biocomplexity of Frost-Boil Ecosystems. www.geobotany.uaf.edu

Walker D.A., et al. 2005. The circumpolar arctic vegetation map. J. Veg. Sci. 16: 267-282.

Wielgolaski, F.;Karlsen, S. 2007. Some views on plants in polar and alpine regions.

Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 6 (1-3): 33-45. Springer

Wein, R.W., 1972. Addendum to Appendix III: Report on a vegetation survey along the proposed gas pipeline route Peel Plateau to Old Crow mountains. Edmonton, Department of Botany, University of Alberta.

Wein, Ross W., and MacLean, D. A. 1973.  Cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum) germination requirements and colonizing potential in the Arctic.  Canadian Journal of Botany  51(12):2909-2513.

Wein, Ross W., et al. 1974. Vascular plant range extensions in the Northern Yukon Territory and Northwestern Mackenzie District, Canada. The Canadian Field Naturalist, Vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 57-66.

Wein, Ross W. and Hernandez, Helios. 1990? Long-term tundra vegetation recolonization of severe seismic line disturbances. Report submitted to the Inuvialuit Land Administration, Science Institute of the Northwest Territories and Polar Continental Shelf Project.

Welker, J. M., et al. 1997. Responses of Dryas octopetala to ITEX environmental manipulations: a synthesis with circumpolar comparisons. Global Change Biology, 3(Suppl.1):61-73

Welsh, S.L. and J.K. Rigby, 1971. Botanical and physiographic reconnaissance of Northern Yukon. Provo, Utah, Brigham Young University, 27 p.

Wiggins, I.L., and J.H. Thomas. 1962. A flora of the Alaskan Arctic Slope. Arctic Inst. Special Publ. 4. Univ. of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 425 p.

Yarie, John; Billings, Sharon. 2002. Carbon balance of the taiga forest within Alaska: present and future.Can. J. For. Res., 32:757-767.

Yurtsev, B.A. 1994. Floristic division of the Arctic. Journal of Vegetation Sceince 5:765-776.

Zalatan, Rebecca. 2002. Dendroecological analysis of successional dynamics after fire in the Shakwak Trench, southwest Yukon Territory. M.Sc. thesis, University of Ottawa.

Zoltai, S.C. 1973. The range of tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) in northern Yukon Territory. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 3:461-464.

Zoltai, S.C. 1975b. Structure of subarctic forests on hummocky permafrost terrain in northwestern Canada. Can. J. For. Res. 5(1): 1-9.

Zoltai, S.C. and Pettapiece, W.W. 1973. Studies of vegetation, landform, and permafrost in the Mackenzie Valley: Terrain, vegetation and permafrost relationships in the northern part of the Mackenzie Valley and northern Yukon. Ottawa: Environmental-Social Program, Northern Pipelines, Report 73-74.

Zoltai, S.C. and Pettapiece, W.W. 1974. Tree distribution on perennially frozen earth hummocks. Arctic and Alpine Research 6:403-411.

Zoltai, S.C. and Tarnocai, C. 1974. Soils and vegetation of hummocky terrain. Environmental-Social Program Northern Pipelines Report 74-75.

Zoltai, S.C. 1975. Structure of subarctic forests on hummocky permafrost terrain in northwestern Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 5:1-9.

Zoltai, S.C. and Woo, V. 1976. Soils and vegetation of Somerset and Prince of Wales islands, District of Franklin. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 76-1B, pp. 143-145.

* ARI file # refers to the file number used at the Aurora Research Institute, used to track research licensed in the NWT.

 

Recommended citation:  Author, date, page title. In: Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2017. E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Date Accessed]

E-Flora BC: An initiative of the Spatial Data Lab, Department of Geography UBC, and the UBC Herbarium.

© Copyright 2017 E-Flora BC.