THE FAMILIES OF TRUE BUGS (HEMIPTERA) OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA


Jagged Ambush Bug (Phymata americana metcalfi), photo by Werner Eigelsreiter.

by
R. A. Cannings and G. G. E. Scudder 
Copyright © 2005 - All rights reserved

Extracted from the forthcoming publication The Insect Families of British Columbia


Key to Families of Hemiptera

1. Forewings divided into a hardened or leathery basal portion and overlapping apical membranous part, or rostrum arising from anterior part of head (Heteroptera).......................................................................................... 36

- Forewings when present, uniformly membranous or only slightly thickened, except for a narrow 'appendex' beyond the marginal vein, or rostrum arising ventrally on head.......................................................................................................2

2. Large insects, 2-6 cm in length; fore femora fossorial ...........................Cicadidae

- Smaller insects, less than 1.5 cm in length; legs when present with slender femora

3. Pronotum inflated; extending backwards over scutellum, at least as a slender process.................................................................................... Membracidae

- Pronotum not inflated, but nearly flat, and not extending backwards; scutellum exposed .....................................................................................................

4. Head with prominent carinae on face, extending from crown to clypellus (Fulgoroidea)............................................................................................. 8

- Head lacking carinae on face............................................................................. 5

5. Tarsi 1- or 2-segmented; tibiae bare or insects legless; antennae (when present) long and filiform (Sternorrhyncha) ...............................................................13

- Tarsi 3-segmented; tibiae setose or pilose; antennae short and bristle-like............ 6

6. Tibiae pilose, with 1-2 stout spurs on outer edge (Cercopoidea)........................ 7

- Tibiae with 2-4 longitudinal rows of large, stout setae.......................... Cicadellidae

7. Scutellum elongate, twice as long as wide; tip of forewings appearing crumpled, with large folded appendices.................................................... Clastopteridae

- Scutellum about as long as wide; tip of forewings flat, appendix, if present, slender
....................................................................................................Cercopidae

8. Basal segment of hind tarsus longer than combined length of other tarsomeres; female with prominent, sword-like ovipositor............................................... 9

- Basal segment of hind tarsus at most as long as combined length of other tarsomeres; female without a prominent, sword-like ovipositor ...................10

9. Hindleg with a prominent, articulated spur at base of tarsus; head with 2 ocelli
...................................................................................................Delphacidae

- Hindleg without a prominent articulated spur at base of tarsus; head with 3 ocelli ..........................................................................................................Cixiidae

10. Second segment of hind tarsus armed with a row of black-tipped spines........................................................................................................ 11

- Second segment of hind tarsus with at most 2 black-tipped spines ....................................................................................................Caliscelidae

11. Head with 2 carinae on face; wings, when folded, with tips held vertically .......................................................................................................Derbidae

- Head with 3 carinae on face; wings, when folded, carapace-like or with tips held horizontally ..............................................................................................12

12. Forewings overlapping at apex; head without long slender process and not foliaceous ..................................................................................... Achilidae

- Forewings not overlapping at apex; head with a slender process at tip, or foliaceous .................................................................................. Fulgoridae

13. Tarsi 2-segmented with 2 claws.................................................................... 14

- Tarsi 1-segmented with a single claw, if legs present ..........................................19

14. Antennae usually with 10 segments; jumping insects .......................................15

- Antennae usually with 3-7 segments; not jumping insects................................... 16

15. Hindlegs with basal tarsal segment with 1 or 2 black claw-like spines at tip .........................................................................................................Psyllidae

- Hindlegs with basal tarsal segment without black claw-like spines at tip
....................................................................................................... Triozidae

16. Wings usually opaque, whitish and covered with a whitish powder; hindwings nearly as large as forewings; cornicles absent ...............................Aleyrodidae

- Wings membranous and not covered with a whitish powder; hindwings much smaller than forewings or wings absent; cornicles often present ....................17

17. Forewings with 3 veins behind stigma extending to wing margin; R5 absent; cornicles absent; antennae 3- to 5-segmented..............................................18

- Forewings with 4, 5 or 6 veins behind stigma, extending to wing margin; R5 present; cornicles usually present; antennae usually 6-segmented (Aphidoidea) ..................................................................................................................26

18. Wings held roof-like over body when at rest; forewings with Cu, and Cu2 separated at base .......................................................................... Adelgidae

- Wings held horizontal when at rest; forewing with Cu, and Cu2 joined at base by common stalk........................................................................... Phylloxeridae

19. Abdominal spiracles present......................................................................... 20

- Abdominal spiracles absent...............................................................................21

20. Anal ring distinct and flat, bearing many pores and 6 long setae......... Ortheziidae

- Anal ring reduced, without pores or setae ...........................................Margodidae

21. Terminal segments of female fused into a pygidium; antennae rudimentary; legs absent; rostrum 1-segmented........................................... Diaspididae (in part)

- Terminal segments of female not fused into a pygidium; rostrum with more than 1 segment.................................................................................................... 22

22. Posterior end of body cleft; anal opening covered by a pair of triangular, sclerotized plates............................................................................. Coccidae

- Posterior end of body not distinctly cleft; anal opening uncovered or covered by a single sclerotized plate............................................................................... 23

23. Wax gland opening on dorsum 8-shaped ..................................Asterolecaniidae

- Wax gland opening on dorsum not 8-shaped.....................................................24

24. Anal ring with 2 setae and never cellular ..............................Diaspididae (in part)

- Anal ring with 4 or more setae, and often cellular............................................... 30

25. Dorsal ostioles present; usually 1-4 ventral circuli present ..........Pseudococcidae

- Dorsal ostioles and ventral circuli absent ...........................................Eriococcidae

26. Cauda knobbed ...........................................................................................27

- Cauda of various shapes (arcuate, rounded, digitate, triangular; may have a subbasal constriction), but not distinctly knob-like ......................................29

27. Tarsi with preapical capitate setae. Antenna with 5 or fewer articles. Pretarsal setae capitate. Eye of aptera, except for triommatidion, absent. Head and pronotum of aptera completely fused .........................................................28

- Tarsi without capitate seta. Antenna with 5 or 6 (usually 6) articles. Pretarsal setae pointed to broadly clavate, but not capitate. Eye of aptera with facets in addition to the triommatidion. Head and thorax of aptera separated by a suture ..................................................................................Drepanosiphidae (part)

28. Secondary rhinaria of alata annulate. Anal plate bilobed. Distal rostral article short and blunt .......................................................................Hormaphididae

- Secondary rhinaria of alata round or irregular. Anal plate rounded. Distal rostral article very long and slender .................................................Thelaxidae (part)

29. Pterostigma of alata prolonged to wing apex (approaching distal end of radial sector); radial sector arising from base of pterostigma. Siphunculi poriform. Aptera with head and prothorax fused in whole or in part and wax glands aggregated into discrete plates on shoots and cones of Pinaceae ....................................................................................................Mindaridae

- Pterostigma of alata normally not extending to apex of wing; if so, then radial sector arising at or beyond middle of pterostigma. If head and prothorax of aptera fused and wax gland plates present, then not on shoots or cones of Pinaceae ..................................................................................................................30

30. Antennal terminal process less than half length of basal part of ultimate antennal segment (or if longer [spring alate of Mordwilkoja], then terminal process with one or more clear rounded rhinaria and body with faceted wax glands. ..................................................................................................................31

- Antennal terminal process more than half length of basal part of ultimate antennal
segment ....................................................................................................32

31. Anal plate rounded to emarginate, or pretarsal setae blunt to clavate, or wax glands aggregated into distinct glandular areas or plates, or basal tarsal article
trapezoidal ..................................................................Drepanosiphidae (part)

- Cauda variously shaped (broadly rounded to distinctly elongate). Pretarsal setae sharply pointed. Anal plate rounded. Basal tarsal article triangular ......................................................................................................Aphididae

32. Lateral tubercles present. Wax gland aggregations absent .................Anoeciidae

- Lateral tubercles absent. Wax gland aggregations present or absent ...................33

33. Basal tarsal article triangular (this is, dorsal surface very short). Rhinaria of alata round to strongly transverse-linear. Rostrum with 4 articles. Wax glands variable, often forming complex aggregate plates. Eye of aptera represented by triommatidion only .....................................................................................34

  • Basal tarsal article trapezoidal (or if triangular then rostrum with 5 apparent articles and siphunculus on a broad conical base or distal article of tarsus at least half length of tibia). Rhinaria more or less circular. Rostrum with 4 or 5 articles. Wax glands not forming distinct aggregate structures. Eye of aptera with facts in addition to triommatidion .......................................... Lachnidae

34. Antenna of alata with 5 articles. Distal tarsal articles with capitate preapical setae. Distinct plate-like wax gland aggregates absent. Middle, sometimes also fore tibiae of aptera with sac-like protrusions. On Betulaceae ............................................................................................Thelaxidae (part)

- Antenna of alata with 5 or (usually)6 articles. Distal tarsal setae pointed. Wax gland plates usually present. Tibiae without thin-walled protrusions. Not on Betulaceae ................................................................................................35

35. Body densely spinulose. Without aggregate wax-gland plates. Living within leaf galls on Arctostaphylos ....................................Drepanosiphidae (Tamaliinae)

  • Body not covered with close-set sharp spinules. Often with wax glands aggregated into plates or ring. Secondary rhinaria of antenna of alat round to transverse-linear ....................................................................... Pemphigidae

36. Antennae clearly visible from above, not concealed in grooves on underside of head; terrestrial or surface water-bugs....................................................... 37

- Antennae not clearly visible from above, but concealed in grooves or pits on underside of head; mostly aquatic bugs ......................................................7

37. Body extremely elongate and slender, with head longer than thorax (including scutellum); body black........................................................... Hydrometridae

- Body, if elongate and slender, with head much shorter than thorax (including scutellum) .................................................................................................38

38. Claws of at least front tarsus preapical; apical tarsal segment longitudinally cleft .................................................................................................................39

- Claws of all tarsi apical; apical tarsal segment no longitudinally cleft ...................40

39. Middle coxae close to hind coxae, and remote from fore coxae; hind femora very long and longer than abdomen; with median metasternal scent gland opening........................................................................................... Gerridae

- Middle coxae about equidistant from fore and hind coxae; hind femora short and about as long as abdomen; with lateral metasternal scent gland openings ..........................................................................................................Veliidae

40. Antennae 5-segmented .................................................................................41

- Antennae 4-segmented .....................................................................................49

41. Insects 3 mm or less in length; hemelytra, including clavus largely membranous; underside of body with velvety-pile of setae .....................................Hebridae

- Insects more than 3 mm in length; clavus not membranous; underside of body without velvety-pile of setae .......................................................................42

42. Forelegs with a dense pad of setae at distal end of tibia; scutellum small and triangular; abdominal venter without trichobothria .....................Nabidae (part)

- Forelegs lacking a dense pad of setae at distal end of tibia; scutellum large and triangular or U-shaped; abdominal venter with trichobothria .......................43

43. Tarsi 2-segmented; mesosternum with prominent keel; abdominal sternum III with a long forward projecting spine ...................................Acanthosomatidae

- Tarsi 3-segmented ...........................................................................................45

44. Labium 3-segmented; prosternum with a median transversely striated groove
Reduviidae (part)

- Labium 4-segmented .......................................................................................10

45. Tibiae with 2 rows of strong and stout black spines; black or brown insects
................................................................................................................. 46

- Tibiae sometimes with spines, but not in 2 rows................................................ 47

46. Scutellum greatly enlarged and covering most of corium, posteriorly broadly rounded and attaining or nearly attaining end of abdomen ..........Thyreocoridae

- Scutellum not so enlarged, but triangular and not covering most of corium........................................................................................... Cydnidae

47. Scutellum greatly enlarged and covering most of corium, posteriorly broadly rounded and attaining or nearly attaining end of abdomen; corium of hemelytra narrow and not extending to inner angle .......................................Scutelleridae

- Scutellum not so enlarged, but triangular and not covering most of corium; corium of hemelytra broad and extending to inner angle......................... Pentatomidae

48. Front femora swollen and with groove for tibia; antennae with last segment swollen ......................................................................... Phymatidae

- Front femora not swollen; antennae with last segment not swollen ......................49

49. Prosternum with a distinct and finely striate median longitudinal groove; rostrum when viewed from side more or less curved, and not pressed flat against body when at rest........................................................................ Reduviidae (in part)

- Prosternum without a distinct and finely striate median longitudinal groove; rostrum when viewed from side not curved, but pressed against body when at rest (or if curved, then insects under 4.5 mm in length .............................................50

50. Body greatly flattened dorso-ventrally, with texture and appearance of tree bark; forewings at rest usually much narrower than abdomen .....................Aradidae

- Body not bark-like; forewings if fully developed, at rest usually about as wide as abdomen .................................................................................................. 51

51. Antennae with basal two segments short and thick, and apical segments filamentous with very long setae; metapleura without evaporatorium ............................................................................................Ceratocombidae

- Antennae not as above, or if terminal segments rather filamentous, than metapleura with evaporatorium ....................................................................................52

52. Forelegs with a dense pad of setae at distal end of tibia............... Nabidae (part)

- Forelegs without a dense pad of setae at distal end of tibia ..............................539

53. Corium and pronotum covered with a net-like pattern ....................................54

- Corium and pronotum not covered with a net-like pattern.................................. 55

54. Ocelli present .................................................................................Piesmatidae

- Ocelli absent............................................................................................Tingidae

55. Tarsi 2-segmented ......................................................................Microphysidae

- Tarsi 3-segmented ............................................................................................56

56. Extremely flat bugs, reddish-brown; forewings pad-like; ectoparasitic on birds and mammals .................................................................................Cimicidae

- Not extremely flat and reddish-brown; forewings not pad-like ...........................57

57. Cuneus present on hemelytra ........................................................................58

- Cuneus lacking on hemelytra .............................................................................29

58. Ocelli usually absent; membrane with 1 or 2 closed cells........................ Miridae

- Ocelli present ..................................................................................................59

59. Female with internal apophysis on anterior margin of abdominal sternum V4 ..................................................................................................Lyctocorinae

- Female lacking apophysis on anterior margin of abdominal sternum VII ..................................................................................................Anthocoridae

60. Rostrum 3-segmented................................................................................... 61

- Rostrum 4-segmented ......................................................................................62

61. Membrane present and with veins forming 2-5 elongate cells; black insects with pale markings ...................................................................................Saldidae

- Membrane when present without veins; insects greenish-ochraceous ..................................................................................................Mesoveliidae

62. Body and appendages long and slender; first antennal segment long and enlarged apically; last antennal segment spindle shaped; femora clavate ........Berytinidae

- Body and appendages not as above................................................................. 63

63. Membrane with only 4-5 veins ......................................................................64

- Membrane with numerous veins ........................................................................72

64. Abdominal spiracles on segment II ventral .....................................................65

- Abdominal spiracles on segment II dorsal .........................................................67

65. Trichobothria present on head; sutures between abdominal sterna IV and V usually curving anteriorly, and ending before attaining lateral abdominal margin; ovipositor in female, at most, dividing abdominal sternum VII .........................................................................................Rhyparochromidae

- Trichobothria absent on head; suture between abdominal sterna IV and V straight, always attaining lateral abdominal margin; ovipositor in female dividing at least sternum VI and VII ...................................................................................66

66. Membrane of hemelytra with a distinct closed cell at base; fore femora weakly incrassate, little thicker than hind femora .................................Heterogastridae

- Membrane of hemelytra without a closed cell at base; fore femora strongly incrassate, much thicker than hind femora ..............................Pachygronthidae

67. Head with each ocellus nearly encircled by a distinct groove................ Cymidae

- Head with each ocellus not encircled by a groove .............................................67

68. Abdominal spiracles on segments III and IV dorsal .......................................69

- Abdominal spiracles on segments III and IV ventral ..........................................71

69. Abdominal spiracles on segments V and VI dorsal; all abdominal terga transverse, with sutures never curving forward............................................ 70

- Abdominal spiracles on segments V and VI ventral; sutures between terga IV/V and V/VI curving forward medially ...............................................Geocoridae

70. Abdominal spiracles on segment VII dorsal; pronotum with each callus with an impressed, transverse, usually shiny, groove; scutellum usually with a Y-shaped elevation........................................................................................ Lygaeidae

- Abdominal spiracles on segment VII ventral; pronotum with calli lacking impressed, transverse grooves; scutellum without a Y-shaped elevation ...............Blissidae

71. Lateral margins of pronotum explanate, or with a wide flattened carina; abdominal sternum VII in male without clusters or combs of setae; abdomen in female rounded caudally ............................................................. Artheneidae

- Lateral margin of pronotum rounded, or at most weakly carinate; abdominal sternum VII in male with transverse combs or clusters of setae; abdomen in female often truncate caudally................................................... Oxycarenidae

72. Metathoracic ostiole opening absent or greatly reduced and not visible from the side ............................................................................................ Rhopalidae

- Metathoracic ostiole large and conspicuous from the side .................................73

73. Bucculae extending backwards beyond base of antennae ....................Coreidae

- Bucculae not extending backwards beyond base of antennae................... Alydidae

74. Rostrum blunt, broad and triangular, not distinctly segmented and scarcely distinguishable from broad apex of head; front tarsus modified as a pala; base of head overlapping front margin of pronotum. .................................Corixidae

- Rostrum prolonged, cylindrical or cone-shaped, 3 or 4-segmented; front tarsus not modified as a pala; base of head not overlapping front margin of pronotum ..................................................................................................................75

75. Ocelli present; middle and hindlegs without swimming setae; front legs raptorial
..............................................................................................Gelastocoridae

- Ocelli absent; middle and hindlegs with fringes of swimming setae..................... 76

76. Abdomen with a pair of long, slender and non-retractile, apical appendages forming a respiratory tube; hind coxae short, conical and rotary ........................................................................................................Nepidae

- Abdomen without a pair of long, slender and non-retractile appendages; hind coxae large and broadly jointed to thoracic pleura ......................................77

77. Hind tarsi with a pair of claws at apex........................................ Belostomatidae

  • Hind tarsi without a pair of distinct claws at apex (only a single claw present)
    ...............................................................................................Notonectidae

 

 

DESCRIPTIONS OF FAMILIES

Suborder STERNORRHYNCHA

Aphids, psyllids, whiteflies, and scale insects. Rostrum arising at back margin of head adjacent to, or between, the bases of the forelegs; antennal flagellum with few to many segments, but not bristle-like; tarsi with 1 or 2 segments.

Infraorder ALEYRODIDAE

Superfamily ALEYRODOIDEA

Family ALEYRODIDAE (whiteflies)

Active flying sucking insects, with the four wings of both males and females, covered with a white wax coating, and held almost flat over the body at rest. Usually less than 2mm in length, the body is also covered with white, waxy powder. The head has two ocelli near the margin of the compound eyes, and the antennae are usually 7-segmented. The tarsi are 2-segmented and bear two claws.

Immature whiteflies are scale-like, with the last instar being quiescent, and usually called a pupa. The larvae excrete honeydew, and are often attended by ants in the wild. They suck plant juices, and some species are important pests on citrus and other trees. They can be pests in the greenhouse and on house plants. Sexual and uniparental forms are known.

There are about 126 genera and some 1156 species of whiteflies worldwide, being most common in the tropics and subtropics.

Nineteen genera and 99 species are reported in North America, with 5 of these genera and 11 reported from Canada. To date 4 genera and species are recorded from British Columbia. The best known species is undoubtedly the alien greenhouse whitefly (Traileurodes vaporariorum (Westwood)), a species that has been introduced to all parts of the world.

Infraorder PSYLLODEA

Superfamily PSYLLOIDEA

Family PSYLLIDAE (Psyllids or jumping plant lice)

Small, 2-5 mm long, active jumping insects, with four wings, usually membranous and held roof-like over the body when at rest. The variously shaped head has three ocelli, and antennae usually with 10 segments. The rostrum is short, 3-segmented, arises from the back margin of the head, and is usually enclosed by the fore coxae. The hindlegs are modified for jumping, and the tarsi are 2-segmented, with two claws. The basal tarsal segment of the hindlegs usually has one or two heavy black spines. The forewings are larger and thicker than the hindwings, and are sometimes coloured. The venation is well developed, and the basal vein of the forewing bifurcate.

Psyllids are generally free living, "plant sap feeding", and the feeding in some species can cause the folding or curling of the leaves of the host plant. A few species form galls. Some species can be a pest in apple and pear orchards.

Worldwide there are 120 genera and approximately 2500 species. Forty genera and 302 species are reported in North America. To date 11 genera and 101 species are recorded in Canada. So far nine genera and 34 species are known from British Columbia. Best known of these is the pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster)), a major pest in pear orchards.

Family TRIOZIDAE

Similar to the psyllids, but with the basal vein of the forewing trifurcate, and the basal segment of the hind tarsus lacking heavy black saltatorial spines.

Immatures of many species are found within depressions in the leaf of the host. Some species cause extensive shoot or leaf distortion, and a few form galls.

Worldwide there are some 40 genera.

Three genera and 25 species are reported to occur in Canada, with two of these genera and 11 species recorded in British Columbia. Best known of these is the potatoe or tomatoe psyllid Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc)), an important pest and vector of virus diseases of potatoes and tomatoes in western Canada.

Infraorder APHIDODEA

Superfamily PHYLLOXEROIDEA

Family ADELGIDAE (adelgids, or conifer wooly aphids)

Minute sucking insects, the adults of which can be winged or wingless. Winged forms hold the wings roof-like over the body at rest. The antennae are 3-segmented in wingless parthenogenetic females, 4-segmented in sexual forms, and 5-segmented in winged parthenogenetic females. The abdomen has four or five readily visible pairs of spiracles, but lacks cornicles and a cauda. Females have a well developed sclerotized ovipositor.

Adelgids feed exclusively on conifers, particularly the foliage or twigs. Many species exhibit host-alternating life cycles, with the primary host always a spruce, on which they form galls. Alternate hosts can be other conifers. Several species are important forest pests.

Worldwide there are eight genera and about 51 species. In North America two genera and 22 species are reported. To date both genera and 18 species have been noted in Canada, with both genera and 13 of the species recorded in British Columbia, four of the latter being alien introductions. Best known in British Columbia is probably the balsam wooly aphid (Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg)).

Family PHYLLOXERIDAE (phylloxerans)

Minute sucking insects, with the four wings folded flat over the abdomen when at rest. The antennae are 3-segmented (rarely 4-segmented) in all forms. The abdomen lacks cornicles, a cauda and an anus.

Phylloxerans are host specific, feeding on woody deciduous plants: many form galls on the foliages. Some species have complicated life cycles, which include winged and wingless forms, and the alternation of parthenogenetic and bisexual forms. All female forms lay eggs.

Worldwide there are 12 genera and about 60 species, mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. There are some 40 species in North America. To date three genera and five species are recorded in Canada, with these genera and four of the species known from British Columbia. Three of the species in B.C. are alien introductions, the best known being the grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch)). This species in most places has a leaf gall form and a root-infesting form. Most damage is caused by the root-infesting form.

Superfamily aphidoidea

Family ANOECIIDAE

Insects in this family have the head and prothorax fused medially in apterous forms. Eyes may be present or absent in apterous adults, but are absent in the immatures of these forms. The antennae are 6-segmented, with the terminal process shorter than the base of the ultimate antennal segments. The secondary rhinaria on the antennae are round. The basal segment of the tarsi is triangular, and the apical setae on the distal tarsal segments are acuminate. The pretarsal setae are also acuminate. The body has lateral thin-walled tubercles, and the siphunculi have setose conical bases. The anal plate is entire, and the cauda is lunate.

This is a small family, with one Holarctic genus, and 22 species. The genus has 7 species in North America and in Canada, 5 species which alternate between foliage of Cornus species and roots of various herbaceous plants.

The only species known from British Columbia is the alien Anoecia corni (Fabricius). Males and egg laying females are apterous.

Family APHIDIDAE

These are aphids with the head and prothorax separate, and not fused in the non-flying forms. Eyes are present in these apterous forms. They also have 6-segmented (rarely 4 or 5-segmented) antennae in adults. These antennae have round secondary rhinaria, and the terminal process is usually at least as long as the basal part of the ultimate antennal segment. In fact, it is usually much longer. Legs have tibiae that usually lack rastral structures, and the basal tarsal segments are triangular. The apical setae on the distal tarsal segments are acuminate. And the pretarsal setae are also acuminate. The body has lateral and dorsal thin-walled tubercles present or absent. Wax glands are dispersed and not aggregated into discrete structures. The siphunculi are usually cylindrical or somewhat swollen between the base and apex: they are rarely pyriform or absent. The anal plate is entire, and the cauda is crescentic to elongate in shape.

This is the largest family of aphids, and includes most of the economically important species. Host plans are usually angiosperms, with many species occurring on roses (Rosaceae) and composites (Asteraceae). There are a few species that feed on mosses, ferns, horsetails and conifers.

Many species alternate between hosts during the life cycle. Such host-alternating species often cause distortion of leaves and new shoots of the primary host, usually a woody plant. Although the majority of species are non-alternating with respect to host plants (monoecious) and include a sexual stage in their annual life cycle (holocyclic), many pest species are exclusively or facultatively asexual. Typically, egg laying females are without wings, although males can be winged or non-winged.

Worldwide there are 214 genera and 2,688 species. One hundred nine genera and 843 species occur in North America. To date 91 genera and 499 species have been reported in Canada. So far 68 genera and 297 species have been recorded in British Columbia. Best known of these several are the introduced species including the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae (Scopoli)), the apple aphid (A. pomi DeGeer), the pea aphid (A. pisum (Harris)), the cabbage aphid (Brevicorne brassicae (L.)), the currant aphid (Cryptoneyzus ribis (L.)), the turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)), the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas)), and the rose aphid (M. rosae (L.)).

Family DREPANOSIPHIDAE

These are aphids in which the head and thorax of non-flying females are rarely fused. Eyes are usually present in such females, and the antennae are usually 6-segmented. The terminal process of the antennae may be long or short, and the secondary rhinaria are usually round to transverse-oval, although rarely they can be transverse and linear. The legs have the apical setae of the distal tarsal segments acuminate, and the pretarsal setae are flabellate, capitate or acuminate. Rastral structures are usually present at the apex of the tibiae, and the basal tarsal segments are often quadrate. Many species have lateral and/or dorsal projections of the abdominal wall. Wax glands are dispersed or aggregated into more or less distinct multiporous structures. Lateral thin-walled tubercles are often present on the body, sometimes being in clusters. The siphunculi are raseform or cylindrical in shape, rarely being pyriform. The anal plate is bilobed or entire, and the cauda is knobbed, ligulate or semicircular in shape.

The majority of species feed on the foliage of dicotyledonous trees and shrubs, although some are sedge feeders. Some species occurring in urban areas can be a nuisance owing to the copious honeydew production. Egg laying females are usually without wings, but those giving birth to live young are winged.

Worldwide there are 92 genera and 591 species. Forty-four genera and 199 species occur in North America. Forty-three genera and 140 species are reported in Canada, with 29 genera and 73 species are recorded from British Columbia. Best known perhaps the alien European birch aphid (Euceraphis punctipennis (Zetterstedt)).

Family HORMAPHIDIDAE

Aphids with head and pronotum fused in wingless females. The antennae have 3-5 segments, and the terminal process is shorter than the basal part of the ultimate segment. The secondary rhinaria on the antennae of winged females are annular.

Wingless females also lack eyes. Legs have tibiae without apical rastrate structures, and the dorsoapical setae of the distal tarsal segments are capitate. The pretarsal setae are acuminate, or the pretarsus can be lacking in some apterous forms. The basal tarsal segments are triangular. The body lacks thin-walled tubercles. Wax glands are aggregated into facetted plates, which are often arranged marginally in apterous forms. The siphunculi are pyriform or absent. The anal plates are bilobed, and the cauda is knobbed.

This gall-inducing group of wooly aphids is most abundant in the Oriental region. Worldwide there are 41 genera and 184 species. Two genera with 2 species occur in Canada. A single species, the witch hazel spiny gall aphid (Hamamelistes spinosus Shimer) is reported from British Columbia.

Family LACHNIDAE

These are aphids in which the head and pronotum of wingless forms are separate. The antennae have six segments, with the terminal process shorter than the basal part of the ultimate segment. The secondary rhinaria on the antennae of winged adults are round. Eyes are present in wingless forms. Legs have tibiae without apical rastrate structures, and the dorsoapical setae of the distal tarsal segments are acuminate. The basal tarsal segments are usually quadrate, and the pretarsal setae are acuminate. Thin-walled tubercles are absent on the body, and wax glands are not aggregated into discrete structures. The siphunculi are pyriform or very short-tubular in shape, and are usually set on a setose conical base. The anal plate is entire and the cauda semicircular. Males are usually winged, but females are wingless.

Most members of this Holarctic family feed on the trunk, branches or main roots of woody plants, either conifers or deciduous trees. A few feed on conifer needles, and some are found on the roots of Compositae. Host alternation does not occur in this family.

Worldwide there are 15 genera and 376 species. Nine genera and 176 species are reported in North America. So far 9 genera and 89 species are recorded from Canada, with 8 of the genera and 50 species occurring in British Columbia. Six of these are alien introduced species. Among the latter is the pine aphid (Cinara pinea (Mordvilko)) and the giant willow aphids (Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin)). Native species include the balsam fir aphid (Cinara curripes (Patch)), the green spruce aphid (C. fornacula Hottes) and the woolly pineneedle aphid (Schizolachnus piniradiatae (Davidson)).

Family MINDARIDAE

These are aphids in which the head and pronotum of wingless forms are fused together. The antennae have six segments, with the terminal process shorter than the basal part of the ultimate segment. The secondary rhinaria on the antennae of winged forms are rounded or transverse-oval in shape. The eyes of the winged forms vary seasonally, from being fully developed to being reduced or even absent. Legs have the tibiae without apical rastral structures, and the dorsoapical setae of the distal tarsal segments are acuminate. The basal tarsal segments are triangular, and the pretarsal setae are acuminate. Thin-walled tubercles are absent on the body, and wax glands are aggregated in facetted plates. The siphunculi are pyriform in shape, the anal plate is bilobed, and the cauda is knobbed. The minute males and oviparous females are wingless.

All species in this Holarctic family feed on the growing tips and young cones of spruces and firs, and may become pests in seed orchards.

Worldwide there is one genus and 7 living species. Five species occur in North America, with three species in Canada, all of which are known from British Columbia. Best known is the balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus Koch).

 

Family PEMPHIGIDAE (Woolly aphids, gall aphids)

Wingless adults in this family have the head and pronotum fused together. The eyes in such wingless forms are greatly reduced or absent. The antennae have six segments, with the terminal process almost always shorter than the basal part of the ultimate segment. The secondary rhinaria on the antennae of winged forms are annular, oval, rounded or irregular in shape. Legs have the tibiae armed with apical rastral setae. The dorsoapical setae on the distal tarsal segments are often capitat in first instar nymphs, but are acuminate in adults. The basal tarsal segments are triangular, and the pretarsal setae are acuminate. Thin-walled tubercles are absent on the body, and wax glands are aggregated into facetted plates. The siphunculi can be absent, but if present are pyriform in shape. The anal plate of the abdomen is entire, and the cauda semicircular. Sexual females and the minute males are wingless and lack mouthparts. Sexual females interestingly produce only a single egg.

Most species in this family alternate hosts in the life cycle, and form galls or pseudogalls on the primary host. Most produce copious amounts of wax, resulting in woolly colonies, which give one of the common names.

Species occur mostly on various deciduous trees and shrubs, although some use the roots of conifers as secondary hosts. Many of the species can persist parthenogenetically for several years on the secondary host. A number are serious economic pests.

Worldwide there are 48 genera and 330 species. Twenty-five genera and 74 species occur in North America. So far 19 genera and 56 species are reported from Canada. Of these, 13 genera and 34 species occur in British Columbia. Nine of the species are alien introductions, one of which is the lettuce aphid (Pemphigus bursarius (L.)). A number of the native species are pests. In this category, well known are the woolly elm aphid (Eriosoma americanum (Riley)), the woolly hawthorn aphid (E. crataegi (Oestlund)), the woolly apple aphid (E. lanigerum (Hausmann)), and the sugarbeet root aphid (Pemphigus betae Doane).

Family THELAXIDAE

Wingless adults have the head and pronotum fused, and the antennae have five segments. The terminal process of the antennae is shorter than the basal part of the ultimate segment, and the secondary rhinaria of winged forms are oval or rounded in shape. Eyes are absent in wingless adults. The legs have tibia that lack apical rastral structures. The dorsoapical setae of the distal tarsal segments are acuminate, and the ventral apical setae are capitat. The basal tarsal segments are triangular, and the pretarsal setae are either acuminate or capitate. Thin-walled tubercles are absent on the body, and wax glands are not aggregated into discrete structures. The anal plate of the abdomen is entire, and the cauda is knobbed or rounded.

These are non-host-alternating, tree-feeding species. North American species feed on oaks or Betulaceae.

Worldwide there are 44 genera and 18 species. Two genera and 5 species occur in North American. These are genera and four species occur in Canada. Two species, Glyphina betulae (l.), an alien species, and Thelaxes californica (Davidson), a native species, occur in British Columbia.

Infraorder COCcODEA

Superfamily ORTHEZIOIDEA

Family margARodidae (Giant scales)

Large scale insects, mostly over 10 mm in length, mobile, with well developed 5-segmented legs, with a 1-segmented tarsus and single claw. Head with beak clearly visible.

The adult female has abdominal spiracles, and the anal ring is reduced, and without pores or setae.

Most species of giant scales are polyphagous, and some are pests. Females have 3 to 5 immature instars, while males have 4, 5 or more instars. During ovipositon, females often produce white waxy filaments to cover the body and eggs. Some species form large encysted stages in development. These cysts, known as 'ground pearls' may endure for several years of quiescence under drought conditions.

This family of scale insects is most abundant in the tropics and subtropics. Worldwide there are about 50 genera and 255 species. Four genera and 4 species are known from Canada. Only one species Matcoccus secretus Morrison is reported from British Columbia.

Family ORTHEZIIDAE (Ensign scales)

These active scale insects have long, well developed 5-segmented legs, with 1-segmented tarsi with a single claw. There is a well developed rostrum with 26-34 setae, the first segment being reduced. The antennae apically bear an elongate thick seta. The abdomen of females which are covered by large overlapping dorsal wax plates have well developed spiracles, and the anal ring is flat and distinct, bearing many pores and six long setae.

The body is covered with body spines of various shapes, usually species-specific, which cover the body in wide bands, often concealing the spiracles. These spines form a semicircular or crescent-shaped ovisac based, which is characteristic of this family.

Females carry eggs in an ensign-like ovisac. There are four immature stages in females, five in males. These scale insects which may be host-specific or polyphagous, feed on various woody and herbaceous plants, and are often found in leaf litter.

Worldwide there are 6 genera and 81 species. Four genera and 31 species occur in North America. Three genera and five species occur in Canada, with two genera and three species known from British Columbia. These are Arctorthezia ocidientalis (Douglas), Orthezia newcomeri Morrison and O. olivacea Cockerall.

Superfamily COCCOIDEA

Family ASTEROLECANIIDAE (Pit scales)

The body of adult females in this family is round to oval in outline, distinctly convex, and covered by a thin transparent to translucent test, often with a filamentous fringe. The antennae are reduced to tubercles, and the legs are absent or tuberculiform. Females lack spiracular and anal plate, and the anal lobes are usually rounded, the anal ring not being surrounded by distinct spine-like setae. The posterior margin of the body is not distinctly furrowed.

These insects overwinter as females as eggs, enclosed in a waxy test. There are three immature stages in females, five in males. Pit scales can reproduce sexually and parthenogenetically. They produce pits or galls on twigs and are often pests on shrubs and ornamental trees.

Worldwide there are 23 genera and about 250 species. Two species in two separate genera occur in Canada. Only the golden oak scale (Asterodinspis variolosa (Ratzburg)) is reported from British Columbia.

Family COCCIDAE (Soft scale insects)

These scale insects have sessile females, although they possess well developed 5-9 segmented antennae, and 5-segmented legs. The body is circular to oval, becoming heavily sclerotized and convex with age. The body usually has submarginal tubercles with multiocular pores, with the posterior end cleft, and with the anal opening covered by a pair of triangular sclerotized plates: Abdominal spiracles [?].

These scales can produce both sexually and parthenogenetically. They may lay eggs or give birth to live young. Some species produce felt-like or cottony egg sacs. Early immature sages lack a waxy protection, with three or four instars in females, five in male.

Many species in this family are pests on fruit and ornamental trees, in greenhouses and on household plants.

Worldwide there are some 90 genera and over 1000 species. Twenty-three genera and 84 species are reported from North America. There are 10 genera and 23 species recorded in Canada. Six of these genera containing 11 species are known from British Columbia. These include the alien European fruit scale (Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché)), the oak lecanium P. quercifex (Fitch)) and the cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabiles (Rathvon).

Family DIASPIDIDAE (Armored scales)

Adult females are pyriform to elongate in shape, with head and thorax completely fused. Antennae are reduced to tubercles and legs are absent, or at most tuberculiform. Eyes are absent and the rostrum is 1-segmented. A pygidium is formed form the posterior abdominal segments, and has lobes, plates or gland spines on the margin, with disk pores and ducts for wax production. The body of adult females and immature males is covered by a tough covering composed of cast skins and wax secretions, that rests roof-like over the body, but is not attached to it. First instar immatures remain mobile for only a short time before becoming sessile. There are three immature stages in the female, and five in the male.

Most species feed on woody flowering plants, but some feed on herbaceous plants and a few on conifers. A number are important pests of fruit and ornamental trees.

Worldwide there are some 350 genera and about 1500 species. Eighteen genera and 29 species are reported in Canada, with 11 of these genera and 16 species recorded in British Columbia. These include the juniper scale (Carulaspis juniperi (Bouché)), the pine needle scale (Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch)), the oystershell scale (Lepidosnaphes ulmi (L.)), the walnut scale (Quadraspidiotus juglansvegiae (Comstock)), the European fruit scale (Q. ostreaeformis (Curtis)), the San José scale (Q. perniciosus (Comstock)) and the euonymus scale (Unaspis euonymi (Comstock).

Family PSEUDOCOCCIDAE (Mealy scales)

The body of adult females is covered by a mealy wax coat, which can be reduced in species living in concealed habitats. There are usually well developed antennae and legs, and females of most species remain motile. The antennae are 2- to 9-segmented. The legs, when well-developed are 5-segmented, often with translucent pores, and the tarsal claws have digitules and sometimes a denticle. The spiracles sometimes have associated disk pores, and usually have multiocular pores. The anal ring has six or more setae, and one to three rows of pores. Females lay eggs or give birth to live young, the eggs usually being protected by an ovisac of cottony wax threads. There are usually four immature stages in females, and five in males. Adult males are normally protected in a cocoon-like sac.

Hosts of most species are herbaceous plants, especially grasses. They are often attended by ants.

Worldwide there are about 180 genera, with almost 2000 species. 49 genera and 322 species are reported in North America. Eleven genera and 23 species are recorded in Canada. To date, eight genera and 17 species are known from British Columbia. Best known are the introduced species, including the apple mealy bug (Phenacoccus aceris (Signoret)), and the Comstock mealy bug (Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana)). Native species include the grape mealy bug (P. martimus (Ehrhorn)), and the fir mealy bug (Puto cupressi (Coleman)).

Suborder CLYPEORRHYNCHA

Cicades, leafhoppers, froghoppers, and treehoppers. Mouthparts arising from posterior part of head capsule; antennae short, bristle-like, arising in front of, or between eyes; lora well defined by sulcus; middle coxae short , approximate; tarsi with 3 segments; elaborate filter chamber in mesosternum.

Superfamily CICADOIDEA

Family Cicadidae (Cicadas)

Large insects, in Canada 2-7 cm in length. Wings held roof-like over the abdomen when at rest. Body compact, with dorsum weakly sculptured. Head wide and blunt with a prominently inflated sucking pump with three prominent ocelli close together in a triangle. The hind margin of the pronotum forms a raised “collar”, and the scutellum has an X-shaped elevation. The wings are membranous and usually transparent, with the forewings much larger than the hindwings and wrinkled. The claval area of the forewings is greatly reduced, and veins in the wing are strong, sinuate, and interrupted across the middle by a flexible “nodal line". The hindwings are small and rounded with slender veins. The forelegs have enlarged femora with spines, and in the nymph are prominent and fossorial. The middle coxae are short and close together. The hind tibia has only one or two stout spines and usually a circlet of apical spines, but there are no spines on the tarsi.

Males usually have well developed, sound producing and receiving organs on the base of the abdomen ventrally, including a tymbal, operculum, membrane and tympanum. In the genus Platypedia, both males and females produce sound by tapping the costal margins of their forewings.

Females cicadas have a sword-shaped ovipositor, and deposit eggs in twigs and branches of trees and shrubs, often causing the terminals to die. On hatching, nymphs drop to the ground, dig into the ground with their fossorial forelegs, and suck the sap of roots. Adults feed on the sap of trees and other perennial plants.

All cicadas have long life cycles, extending over at least four years or more. Some species in eastern North America have a life cycle spanning 17 years.

Worldwide there are some 140 genera and over 1500 species. In North America 22 genera and 166 species are reported. Four genera and 19 species are recorded in Canada, with one additional adventitive species in the east. Two genera and nine species occur in British Columbia. The commonest is Okanagana occidentalis (Walker). Found on south-east Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands and in the dry interior, it can often be heard singing during the day in midsummer from some lofty perch, often in a conifer.

Superfamily CERCOPOIDEA

Family CERCOPIDAE (Large spittlebugs or froghoppers)

Medium sized, 4-12 mm long insects, with compact, frog-like appearance, and able to hop. The head anteriorly between the setiform antennae, is inflated by a sucking pump. There are two prominent ocelli on the crown. The pronotum is relatively large, and the scutellum is an equilateral triangle. The wings are equal in length, with the forewings leathery, and the hindwings are transparent with slender veins. The middle legs have a blade-like meron, while the setose hindlegs are elongate, adapted from jumping and armed with 1-2 lateral spines. Both the middle and hind tibiae have rows of apical spines.

These hemipterans are called spittle bugs, because the immatures produce and cover themselves with a protective frothy secretion.

Worldwide there are 200 genera and about 2500 species. Eight genera and 50 species are reported in North America, with all eight of these genera and 24 species recorded from Canada. Four genera and 11 species occur in British Columbia. The commonest is the alien meadow spittlebug (Philaenus spumaries (L.)), which occurs in several colour forms.

Family CLASTOPTERIDAE (Small spittle bugs)

Formerly included within the Cercopidae, these insects are 2.5-5 mm long, with a very compact, smooth body, or with the body transversely striate. The head anteriorly has an inflated sucking pump, which lies between deep pits enclosing the setiform antennae. There are two ocelli in the crown of the head, the pronotum is relatively large, and the scutellum is twice as long as wide. The wings are equal in length, with the forewings being leathery with crumpled-looking membranous tips. The hindwings are transparent with slender veins, and the legs are like the Cercopidae, with 1-2 spines on the hind tibiae.

Worldwide there are two genera and 50 species. One genus and 33 species are reported in North America. There is one genus (Clastoptera) in Canada, with 12 species. Six of these species are known from British Columbia, with the alder spittle bug, Clastoptera obtuse (Say) being the most common.

Superfamily MEMBRACOIDEA

Family CICADELLIDAE (Leafhoppers)

Small to medium sized, 2.5-12 mm long insects, with compact, often rather elongate body. Although often greenish, brownish, black or dull coloured with various markings, some species have bright colour patters. The head is flattened against the thorax, or parabolically produced and dorso-ventrally compressed, or with an inflated sucking pump between the setiform antennae. There are two ocelli on the crown or near the margins of the face. In a few species, both short-winged and long-winged forms occur. In long-winged forms, the wings are equal in length, with the forewings being leathery to membranous with obscure veins. In short-winged forms the forewings are truncated and scale-like. The hindwings, when present, are transparent with slender veins. The hindlegs have transverse coxae, and tibiae that are often very elongate,. The hind tibiae have four prominent rows of macrosetae, and the tarsal claws are foliceous.

Worldwide this family contains some 1500 genera and over 20,000 described species. There are about 4500 species in North America. There are at least 147 genera and over 1100 species known from Canada, with 99 of these genera and 508 species so far reported in British Columbia. Notable species in this province include the Aster leafhopper (Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Forbes)), the Beet leafhopper (Neoaliturus tenellus (Baker)), the colourful rhododendron leafhopper (Graphocephala fennahi Young), the alien raspberry leafhopper (Macropsis fuscula (Zetterstedt)), the alien grape leafhopper (Erythoneura comes (Say)), the Virginia creeper leafhopper (Kyboasca maligna (Walsh)), the introduced bramble leafhopper (Ribautiana tenerrima (Herrich-Schaeffer)), the alien yellow apple leafhopper (Typhlocyba froggatti Baker), the native white apple leafhopper (T. pomaria McAtee) and the introduced rose leafhopper (T. rosae (L.)). Some of these can be pests.

Family MEMBRACIDAE (Treehoppers)

Medium-sized insects, 4-13 mm long, with compact body. The pronotum is enormously enlarged, inflated or thorn-like, extending backwards over the body, usually concealing the scutellum. The wings are of equal length, with the forewings being membranous or with the leading edge leathery. The claval area is greatly reduced and veins are indistinct. The hindwings are slender, and transparent with slender veins usually forming an open meshwork. The legs are usually more or less flattened on the outer edges, and fringed with 2-3 rows of fine setae. The hindlegs when at rest, lie with the “knee” joint drawn up behind the eyes. The hind coxae are transverse, and the claws are foliaceous.

Most treehoppers are host-specific, feeding on the sap of trees and shrubs, although some species do feed on grasses.

Worldwide there are about 320 genera and 2400 species, most of which occur in the tropics and subtropics. There are some 56 genera and 258 species reported from North America. Twenty-three genera and 105 species are recorded in Canada, with seven of these genera and 13 of these species known from British Columbia. These include the buffalo treehopper (Ceresa alta Walker), and the thorn-like brown Campylenchia rugosa (Fowler).

Suborder ARCHAEORRHYNCHA

Planthoppers. Mouthparts arising from posterior part of head capsule; antennae short, bristle-like, arising between eyes in sharply defined sides of head; middle coxae separated, elongate; tarsi with 3 segments.

Superfamily FULGOROIDEA

Family ACHILIDAE (Achilid bark bugs)

Medium-sized insects, 6-11 mm long, brownish or tan, with the body dorso-ventrally flattened. The head has a face sharply defined by lateral carinae between the eyes. The antennae are set below the eyes, and are small, and globose with an apical seta. There are two ocelli set just in front of the eyes on the side of the head. The pronotum and mesothorax have diverging carinae on the sides and across the notum. The wings are of equal length, with the forewings being leathery, and broadly overlapping at the tips. The legs are glabrous, with two lateral spines and transverse rows of spines on the hind tibia.

Most species occur in coniferous forests, with immatures living under loose bark and in depressions in dead wood, or in rotten logs. Adults apparently feed on the juices of trees and shrubs, but the immatures probably feed on fungi.

These insects are mainly tropical, with about 100 genera and 350 species worldwide. Eight genera and 55 species are reported to occur in North America. There are three genera and 19 species recorded in Canada. Two genera and 9 species occur in British Columbia. The transcontinental Epiptera confusa Beirne is the best known.

Family CALISCELIDAE (Piglet bugs)

These small insects, with species 2.5-5 mm long in Canada, have a short and very robust body, with the head sometimes produced as a short “snout”. The face is weakly defined by lateral carinae between the eyes. The antennae, set below the eyes, are small and globose with an apical seta. There are two ocelli set just in front of the eyes in the sides of the head. The pronotum is sulcate medially, with vertical lateral carinae. The mesothorax has diverging carinae across the notum. The wings are usually reduced to scale-like flaps. If fully winged, the wings are of equal length, with forewings membranous, and slender, exposing the sides of the body when at rest. Such forewings have few longitudinal veins connected by cross-veins near the tip. The legs are glabrous, with two lateral spines and transverse rows of spines on the apex of the hind tibia.

Adults and immatures live on grasses and so these insects are abundant in grasslands, especially the prairies. However, the family is most abundant in the tropics and subtropics.

Wordlwide there about 15 genera and fewer than 100 species. Four genera and 44 species occur in North America, with these four genera and 11 species are reported in Canada. Two genera and just two species occur in British Columbia. The black Bruchomorpha beameri Doering and the paler Peltonotellus histronica Stål occur in the dry interior.

Family CIXIIDAE (Roothoppers)

Medium-sized, 4-8 mm long insects, broadly-oval in shape. The head is short, with three ocelli, the median one being very close to the upper margin of the clypellus. The frons normally has three carinae, and the antennae have two basal segments and a terminal seta. The pronotum is short and broad, with a concave posterior margin. The mesonotum is large with three or five carinae. The wings are fairly large, and held roof-like over the body when at rest. The forewings are transparent and membranous, with numerous prominent veins, often with prominent dark spots along these veins, each with minute setae. The apices of the forewings do not overlap at the tips. The hind tibiae are long with no lateral spines, although there is a circle of spines at the apex.

The hind tarsus has the basal tarsomere longer than the combined length of the other two tarsomeres. The female has a sword-shaped ovipositor, surrounded by a flocculent mass of wax fibres.

These jumping insects occur on trees and shrubs, with the immatures living mostly in soil, feeding on roots.

Roothoppers are most abundant in the tropics, with some 120 genera and 1000 species described worldwide. There are 14 genera and 182 species reported in North America. Five genera and 34 species are recorded in Canada. All five genera and 13 species occur in British Columbia. The most frequent is the transcontinental Cixius basalis Van Duzee.

Family DELPHACIDAE (Spur-footed planthoppers)

These are small to medium-sized, 2-8 mm long planthoppers, usually rather brownish in colour. The head is usually short, often with a pentagonal figure defined by carinae. The antennae are prominent, but seldom long. They usually have discrete sensory areas forming warty bumps. The thorax is short, with lateral carinae. The forewings are often no more than tiny or reduced scale-like flaps. If fully winged, the wings are membranous, with few, interconnected veins, the tips of the wings being narrow. There is a movable spur or flap-like “calcar” at the apex of the hind tibia, and other tibiae may be foliaceous. The female ovipositor is long, curved and sword-shaped, entirely sunk into the lower surface of the abdomen and extending nearly to its base.

Spur-footed planthoppers live mainly on Poaceae and Cyperaceae, often in humid habitats. They are common on grassy meadows close to ponds and streams.

Worldwide there are about 150 genera and over 1300 species. Fifty-two genera and 303 species are reported to occur in North America. There are 27 genera and 124 recorded in Canada, with 19 genera and 50 species known from British Columbia. By far the commonest are the ubiquitous Javesella pellucida (Fabricius), which ranges beyond tree line, and Delphacodes campestris (Van Duzee) which occurs commonly in inhabited and farm areas.

Family DERBIDAE (Derbid bark bugs)

Derbid bark bugs in Canada are 4-12 mm long, laterally flattened, and moth-like, with two facial carinae. The eyes are relatively large, and two ocelli are present, one in front of each eye. The antennae may be prominent or strangely twisted. The apical segment of the beak is only as long as wide. The forewings are delicate, membranous or darkly pigmented, much longer than the hindwings, and with enlarged hind lobes. The wings are held vertically over the body at rest. The hind tibiae have very small or no spines, and the basal tarsomere of the hind tarsus has two small teeth.

Derbids generally feed on woody fungi that grow on rotting vegetation, or on flowering plants. The family is most abundant in the tropics and subtropics. Worldwide there are about 120 genera and some 800 species. Fourteen genera and 67 species are reported in North America. Five genera and 14 species are recorded from Canada. Only one species, the delicate, pinkish Otiocerus degeeri Kirby is known from British Columbia.

Family FULGORIDAE (Lanternflies)

These are medium sized insects in Canada, 4-11 mm long They are uniform brownish in colour, with the head prolonged into a horn-like process. The body is not greatly flattened, but has paired carinae on each side of the pronotum, forming a longitudinal channel behind the relatively large eyes. Two ocelli are present between the eyes and the antennae. The forewings are somewhat leathery with prominent veins, often strongly convex and elytra-like.

Most species are associated with grasslands, and evidently feed on grasses. Worldwide there are about 120 genera and 700 species, with most occurring in the tropics. Sixteen genera and 64 species are reported from North America. Two genera and eight species are known from Canada, with a single genus with three species in British Columbia.

The commonest species in the province is Scolops angustatus Uhler, found throughout much of the dry interior grasslands.

Suborder PROSORRHYNCHA (=HETEROPTERA)

True bugs (=Heteroptera). Rostrum arising from front of head, with head capsule usually closed behind it; antennae of 3-5 segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum with 1-3 segments), with scape and pedicel often elongate and similar to flagellar segments; forewing usually differentiated into a basal thickened, and apical membranous area, forming hemelytra; hemelytra folded flat and overlapping over the abdomen.

Infraorder DIPSOCOROMORPHA

Superfamily DIPSOCOIDEA

Family CERATOCOMBIDAE (Ceratocombids)

All species in this family are less than 3 mm in length. They are brownish, cryptically coloured bugs, with long slender antennae, 2-segmented tarsi and with the head, antennae and legs bearing long bristle-like setae. The hemelytra have a costal fracture and the membrane has 2-3 large cells.

Ceratocombids are usually found in leaf litter, at base of grass clumps, in rotting wood or on the forest floor. They are probably predators, feeding on other small arthropods that occupy the same habitat.

There are eight genera and some 50 species worldwide. Although there are two genera and four described species in North America, only Certocombus vagans McAtee and Malloch has been reported from British Columbia. All captures are from forest litter.

Infraorder NEPOMORPHA

Superfamily NEPOIDEA

Family BELOSTOMATIDAE (Giant water bugs,
Electric light bugs, Toe biters)

These are large, flattened, elongate-oval shaped aquatic bugs, uniform dull brown in colour, with short hidden 4-segmented antennae. The forelegs are greatly enlarged and raptorial, while the hindlegs are modified for swimming. The membrane of the hemelytra has a reticulate venation and the abdomen terminates in a pair of flattened, retractable "straps", each bearing a spiracle at the base.

Belostomatids are voracious predators, usually found in freshwater ponds, lakes and rivers. Although prey is usually smaller aquatic organisms, such as immature insects and tadpoles, at times they will prey on fish, frogs and even small birds. Victims are subdued by powerful hydrolytic enzymes injected through the short beak. They will occasionally 'bite' humans on the toes while wading in ponds and lakes, hence the common name 'toe biter'. They can also 'bite' fingers if not picked up correctly by the prothorax.

Although aquatic, they disperse by flight, and adults are regularly attracted to light, especially street lamps. This accounts for the other common name 'electric light bugs'.

In the genus Lethocerus, eggs are laid in clumps on underwater objects, but in the genera Abedus and Belostoma the females lay their eggs on the back of the male. The males then carry them until they hatch, an unusual case of sex role reversal.

There are nine genera and around 146 species worldwide. Although three genera and 22 species occur in North America, only two genera and four species occur in Canada. Just two species, Belostoma flumineum Say and Lethocerus americanus (Leidy) occur in British Columbia. The latter is widely distributed in the province, but the former is confined to the southern interior.

Family NEPIDAE (Water scorpions)

Elongate, rather stick-like aquatic bugs, with very short, 3-segmented antennae, concealed in pockets on the underside of the head below the eyes. The forelegs are raptorial with elongate femora, while the middle and hindlegs are long and slender, but not modified for swimming. The tarsi are 1-segmented. There is an elongate breathing tube extending from the abdomen, like a slender tail.

Water scorpions, as the name suggests, are predators, usually found in ponds and streams, usually clinging to sticks and weeds. The eggs, which are laid into plant tissue, have two long respiratory horns which project into the water for gaseous exchange of the air contained in chambers of the eggs shell.

There are 14 genera and 231 recognized species worldwide, mostly occurring in the tropics. Three genera and 13 species occur in North America, with two genera (Nepa and Ranatra) and four species in eastern Canada. Only Ranatra fusca Palisot occurs in the west and in British Columbia.

Superfamily OCHTEROIDEA

Family GELASTOCORIDAE (Toad bugs)

Ovoid, flattened, dull coloured bugs with a roughened and "warty" surface, and hopping style of locomotion, hence their common name. They have large, bulging eyes, concealed antennae and raptorial forelegs.

Toad bugs live along margins of ponds, rivers and streams, and show a remarkable resemblance to their background. They are predators, feeding on small insects.

They are a predominately southern hemisphere group, with two recognized genera. There are about 100 species worldwide and seven species in North America. Only one species, Gelastocoris oculatus (Fabricius) occurs in Canada. It is recorded from only a single locality in British Columbia, a gravel pit in Maple Ridge.

Superfamily CORIXOIDEA

Family CORIXIDAE (Water boatmen)

Water boatmen are stream-lined elongate oval aquatic insects with a broad head, large eyes, small hidden antennae and a short triangular back. The forelegs are scoop-like (palae), while the middle legs are long and slender with a single tarsal segment and used for clinging. The hindlegs are flattened, oar-like, fringed with long setae and used for swimming. The hemelytra, including the membrane often have reticulated or bar-like broken or unbroken black and pale patterning.

Water boatmen are commonly found in lakes, ponds and slow sections of streams, and some species are especially adapted physiologically to life in inland saline ponds and saline estuary areas. Although commonly regarded as algae feeders, most species are actually predators, capable of feeding on many aquatic invertebrates. In the laboratory, many species can be reared on brine shrimp.

Most species overwinter as adults under water, and may be found swimming under ice or trapped in air pockets within it. Adults disperse by flight in both spring and fall, and fall dispersers are often attracted to light. Stridulation is used as a method of communication between the sexes under water, with the songs being species and sex specific.

Worldwide, there are some 34 genera and 556 described species. The North American fauna is comprised of 16 genera and 127 described species. Twelve genera and 77 species occur in Canada, with nine genera and 36 species so far recorded in British Columbia. Species identification in the Corixidae is often difficult, with females at times, impossible to name to species. This is especially true for the 12 species of Sigara in British Columbia.

Superfamily NOTONECTOIDEA

Family NOTONECTIDAE (Backswimmers)

This family gets its common name from the fact that these aquatic bugs swim and rest, upside-down under water. Being predators, they have large eyes and raptorial forelegs. The hindlegs are flattened, oar-like, fringed with long setae and used for swimming. The abdomen has a medial longitudinal keel and is fringed medially and laterally with long setae. Although adults spend most of their time under water, they are air-breathing, relying on an air bubble trapped beneath the elytra. This is renewed occasionally by rapid visits to the water surface.

Notonectids prefer still-water habitats, and prey on various aquatic invertebrates and small vertebrates. When handled they will often 'bite', and inflict a painful 'sting'. Occasionally they can become a nuisance in swimming pools. Adults dispersal is by air, and insects are often attracted to light.

Worldwide, there are about 11 genera and 343 species. Three genera and 32 species occur in North America, two genera and 12 species in Canada. Both of these genera, Buenoa and Notonecta, occur in British Columbia.

Species of Buenoa are small, narrow and delicate species, pale and with bodies of a rather conical shape. They occur in ponds, and have cells containing haemoglobin which is often clearly visible through the integument. This haemoglobin functions in allowing these backswimmers to maintain neutral buoyancy and thus remain stationary in the water column. Both B. confusa Truxal and B. macrotibialis Hungerford occur in interior lakes, while only B. confusa has been taken in the coastal areas.

The genus Notonecta with five species in British Columbia is rather robust, and often with dark coloration. The commonest species are N. kirbyi Hungerford with a completely black scutellum and bare median keel to the abdominal venter, and N. undulata Say with a bicoloured scutellum and black setose median keel. Both occur on the coast and in the interior. The rather large, uniform coloured N. borealis Hussey, which occurs in interior and northern lakes is evidently flightless. Two smaller rare species, N. spinosa Hungerford and N. unifasciata andersoni Hungerford occur in the interior, the former with spinose mesotrochanter, the latter with this segment of the middle leg angulate. Like N. undulata these latter two species have a bicoloured scutellum. N. undulata has a rounded middle trochanter.

Infraorder GERROMORPHA

Superfamily MESOVELIOIDEA

Family MESOVELIIDAE (Water treaders)

The water treaders are often without wings in the adult stage, live as predators on the water surface or floating vegetation in still water, and are greenish or greenish-brown in colour. The head is pointed, longer than wide and with ocelli in winged forms. The eyes are kidney-shaped, the rostrum is 3-segmented, but the ventral surface of the head lacks a rostral groove. The dorsal surface of the second thoracic segment (mesonotum) is exposed, and if wings are present, they lack cells and veins in the membrane of the forewing. The legs have coxae that are not fused to the thorax, the tibiae have stiff black spines and the tarsi are 3-segmented with terminal claws. The abdomen lack a dense velvety pile ventrally.

Worldwide there are 11 genera and 39 described species. A single genus with three species occurs in North America, with two of these present in Canada. Only Mesovelia mulsanti White occurs in British Columbia. It is widely distributed on the coast and in the interior and has characteristic outstanding black spines on the femora ventrally.

Superfamily HEBROIDEA

Family HEBRIDAE (Velvet water bugs)

Small, semi-aquatic bugs, living either in moist debris near shorelines or among floating aquatic plants. The head has ocelli and 4- or 5-segmented antennae. It also has prominent bucculae ventrally, and a deep rostral groove that is continued on to the thoracic venter. The rostrum is 4-segmented. There is a large pronotum, and a small visible scutellum.

These inconspicuous predators are often apterous, but if they have wings, the hemelytra lack a cuneus and veins to the membrane. The coxae of the hindlegs are cylindrical and not fused to the thorax. Tibiae are without stiff black spines, and the tarsi are 2-segmented with apical claws. The body has a thick, velvety pile that prevents wetting.

Eggs are laid on moss or algae, and both young and adults feed on Collembola and other small arthropods. Like many predators, they are sometimes cannibalistic

Worldwide there are seven genera and about 160 species. In North America, there are three genera and 15 species. Two genera and six species are reported in Canada, but only one species Merragata hebriodes White occurs in British Columbia. It has 4-segmented antennae and four large white spots on the dark brown hemelytral membrane. The length is 1.5-2 mm. It is best collected by trampling vegetation at the edge of small freshwater habitats.

Superfamily HYDROMETROIDEA

Family HYDROMETRIDAE (Marsh treaders)

Elongate, stick-like insects, about 8-11 mm in length. They have long antennae, and long thread-like legs with terminal claws. The head is very elongate, with eyes located midway along its length. The head is longer than the thorax, and insects are usually apterous. The occasional winged forms have three closed cells in the membrane of the hemelytra.

Marsh treaders are usually found on the surface of ponds with abundant vegetation. They walk sedately over the water surface searching for small insects as prey.

Worldwide there are seven genera and over 110 species. Only the genus Hydrometra occurs in North America, with nine species. Only one species, H. martini Kirkaldy, occurs in British Columbia and Canada. In British Columbia, this species has so far only been recorded from Lytton.

Superfamily GERROIDEA

Family GERRIDAE (Water striders)

Water striders are active predators that live on the surface of lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, temporary puddles and the open ocean. Most have elongate and cylindrical bodies, although some species on rivers have an almost globular body. In all of them, the legs are long, and the body venter is clothed with a dense silvery pubescence. The head is shorter than the thorax, lacks a distinct median longitudinal impression, and is without ocelli. The thorax is without a scutellum, but the metathorax ventrally has a median scent gland opening or omphalium. Many species have apterous forms, but those with wings have never more than four cells in the membrane of the hemelytra.

The legs have subterminal claws and two-segmented tarsi, and the forelegs are used for catching prey, but do not have a grasping comb. The characteristic long middle and hindlegs, which usually spread wide on the water surface have elongate femora, with the hind femora being longer than the middle femora and extend beyond the end of the abdomen.

Worldwide there are some 60 genera and approximately 500 described species. In North America there are nine genera and 47 species, with six of these genera and 23 species occurring in Canada. Three genera and nine species occur in British Columbia, with no member of the rather globose bodied river species being present. Aquarius remigis (Say) is the species usually found in flowing waters. The majority of the species of Gerris occur on ponds and other non-moving water-bodies, where several may coexist.

Gerrid locomotion on the water surface is usually by rowing or gliding, with the middle legs providing the propulsive force. The fore and hindlegs form a stable tetrapod and function to stabilize the insect during the recovery strokes. Movement of the middle legs can also produce a jumping or leaping form of locomotion.

Gerrids overwinter as adults, usually on shore close to water. Eggs are laid in the spring superficially and lengthwise, either on upper or lower surfaces of floating objects. There may be more than one generation a year in some species. There has been extensive research on the mating strategies in gerrrids, and mate guarding by the male riding on the back of the female is easily observed in many species. Members of the stream dwelling Aquarius remigis have been shown to communicate through the generation of surface waves on the water. Males can ascertain the sex of other adult striders by the type of waves, as males generate high frequency waves, while those generated by the females are low frequency.

Gerrids move between water-bodies by flying. Species of Limnoporus only have long-winged adults. However in Gerris, most species are dimorphic with both short-winged or apterous adults, as well as long-winged forms. The relative frequency of the morphs can vary significantly in space and time. The dimorphic can be either genetically or environmentally determined. This wing polymorphism is an adaptation to on the one hand cope with habitat stability and on the other hand maximize reproductive output. Because the growth of ovaries competes with the high-energy consumption of the flight muscle development and flight, the trade-offs can be important. Many gerrids show autolysis of the flight muscles of flying morphs after dispersal, for much the same reasons.

Family VELIIDAE (Small water striders)

The small water striders have a short body and are often apterous. The head has a distinct median longitudinal impression dorsally, and a pair of deep pits near the posterior angle of the compound eyes. There are no ocelli. The prothorax is large and obscures much of the meso- and metanotum. The scent gland openings on the thorax have laterally extended channels. Forewings when present have fewer than six closed cells. The legs have preapical claws. The forelegs of the male usually have a grasping comb of short spines along the inner margin of the tibiae. The tarsi of the forelegs are either 1- or 3-segmented, while the tarsi of the middle legs are 2- or 3-segmented. The femora of the hindlegs are also shorter than the femora of the middle legs

Veliids are predators and live on the surface of freshwater, walking or running on the water surface. Their subterminal claws enable them to avoid breaking through the water surface. The entire body surface, being covered with a layer of microsetae, is not wetable. Locomotion on the water surface is facilitated at times by the secretion of saliva into the water. This causes a reduction in the water's surface tension, which tends to pull the insect onto the area of lowered surface tension. This type of locomotion is termed expansion skating or "skimming".

Some members of the family, that do not occur in British Columbia, inhabit running water, and mountain streams where their movements over the surface are facilitated by an expanded tuft of hairs set deep in a cleft of the last segment of the middle tarsus. This tuft can be fanned out against the water and serves to aid in locomotion or prevent the insects being swept away by the current.

Elsewhere in the world, especially in tropical waters, there are veliids that live on salt water, inhabiting intertidal areas, estuaries, mangroves and coral covers. Still other veliids are semiterrestrial.

Worldwide there are some 38 genera and about 600 described species. Five genera and 34 species occur in North America, with three genera and seven species being reported in Canada. Only the genus Microvelia occurs in British Columbia, being represented by just two species. The widely distributed M. buenoi Drake occurs throughout the province on still water and vegetation at the edge of ponds, bogs and fens. It is easily recognized by having only two segments of the thorax exposed dorsally, tufts of silvery pubescence present on the head around the eyes and antennae, antero-lateral margins of the pronotum and on the lateral edges of the anterior and posterior abdominal terga. The hind tibiae of the male in M. buenoi are also straight, while in M. pulchella Westwood they are strongly curved. M. pulchella has three segments of the thorax exposed dorsally, lacks the silvery pubescent tufts and is paler ventrally. M. pulchella is restricted to the interior of the province.

Infraorder LEPTOPODOMORPHA

Superfamily SALDOIDEA

Family SALDIDAE (Shore bugs)

The predaceous shore bugs, as the common name suggests, live in damp areas or near water. They are quite uniform in general appearance, being oval, blackish in colour, with large eyes and a 3-segmented rostrum. The membrane of the hemelytra has 4 or 5 closed cells.

Worldwide there are some 26 genera and 265 species. In North America, there are 12 genera and 69 species, while in Canada 10 genera and 38 species are reported. To date, 6 genera and 27 species have been recorded in British Columbia. Because species identification in this family is quite difficult, even for the expert, little work has been done on their biology. One of the commonest species however is Saldula laticollis (Reuter) which can be found on beaches, in inter-tidal areas and estuaries. The species is interesting because it is able to remain submerged for substantial periods, without use of special respiratory surfaces or devices.

Infraorder CIMICOMORPHA

Superfamily CIMICOIDEA

Family ANTHOCORIDAE (Minute pirate bugs)

The minute pirate bugs are predators on other insects living on flowers, conifers, deciduous trees and shrubs or under bark. Body length is from 1.8-4.9 mm. The body is rather flattened with somewhat pointed head with ocelli. The antennae are 4-segmented, while the 3-segmented rostrum is inserted anteriorly on the head. Distinct scent-gland openings occur laterally on the metathorax. Forewings, when present, have a distinct costal fracture and cuneus. All abdominal segments have laterotergites and the female lacks an apophysis internally on the anterior margin of the seventh abdominal sterna. Males have asymmetrical genitalia, with the right paramere greatly reduced or absent.

Reproduction in the anthocorids involves either traumatic insemination with the left paramere modified into an organ to penetrate the body wall of the female during copulation, or sperm is injected into special copulatory tubes that facilitate ovarial fertilization. Most species overwinter as adults, and have one to three generations each year.

Because of their predatory habits, anthocorids are often used in attempts at biological control. Both native and alien introduced species have been utilized for this purpose.

Worldwide there are about 80 genera and 500 species. Twenty genera and 74 species occur in North America, with 14 genera and 36 species being recorded in Canada. Nine genera and 26 species are reported from British Columbia, with four of these being introduced species. Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius) was introduced in Summerland in the Okanagan in 1963 in an attempt to control the pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster)). It is still confined to the Okanagan, but may be now displacing some of the native species of Anthocoris. The minute pirate bug most usually encountered is the very small (1.8-2.25 mm) herbaceous flower dwelling Orius tristicolor (White). It is a shiny black insect with the basal half of the hemelytra pale.

Family CIMICIDAE (Bed bugs)

Bedbugs are flattened, oval or rounded, brownish insects that suck the blood of warm blooded vertebrates. The head lacks ocelli, the antennae are four segmented, and the rostrum is 3-segmented and inserted anteriorly on the head. All bugs lack well developed forewings, these being represented by small pads. There are no hindwings. Legs have 3-segmented tarsi, but these are not especially well adapted for clinging.

Bedbugs, although bloodsucking, do not live on the host. Hence they are termed temporary ectoparasites. Once fed, the bugs leave the host and live nearby, either in the nest of the host, or some other secluded location. All bedbugs have traumatic insemination whereby the male punctures the abdomen of the female with the left clasper, which is modified as copulatory organ. Sperm are injected directly into the abdomen of the female, a process termed haemocoelic insemination. Special paragenital structures on the ventral part of the fifth and sixth abdominal segment of the female facilitate this strange process of mating.

Bedbugs are most numerous in the tropics and subtropics. Worldwide there are 23 genera and about 75 species. Eight genera and 15 species in North America, with three genera and seven species reported in Canada. There are three genera and five species recorded in British Columbia. These include the human bedbug (Cimex lectularius L.), the bat bug (Cimex pilosellus (Horvath)) and the swallow bugs (Oeciacus vicarius Horvath). Hesperocimex coloradensis List has been recorded from the nest of the northern flicker (Colaptes auratus) at Summerland. Cimex latipennis Usinger & Ueshima is reported from B.C., but we have seen no specimens.

The human bedbug was at one time one of the best known of the true bugs, being a regular inhabitant of human swellings. However, with improved hygiene and advent of modern insecticides, this pest has become quite infrequent. Accurate identification of species is difficult, but host association gives a clue to the identity. However, the two species associated with bats, namely Cimex latipennis and C. pilosellus require study of the chromosome number for conclusive identification. In British Columbia, C. pilosellus has been collected in association with the Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus) and the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagus). In California, C. latipennis is recorded with the fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes).

Family LYCTOCORIDAE (Lyctocorids)

Lyctocorids are predatory bugs that feed on insects and mites in decaying vegetable matter, under bark, in bird’s nests and rodent brows. They occasionally suck the blood of humans and domestic animals.

They are rather small insects, 3.3 to 4.9 mm in length with a rather flattened body, pointed head with ocelli, and with quite distinctive antennae. These are 4-segmented, with the terminal two segments thinner than the base of the second segment. The basal segment of the rostrum is very short. The forewing has a distinct stub anteriorly near the corium-membrane boundary, and has only one or a few free veins in the membrane. The mesosternum has a median groove. The metathorax has distinct scent-gland grooves, and the ostiolar canal is angular and bent anteriorly.

The abdomen has distinct laterotergites, and the female has an internal aphophysis on the anterior margin of the seventh abdominal sternum. The male genitalia are asymmetrical, with the left clasper lacking a groove.

Reproduction in the lyctocorids involves traumatic insemination, with the male puncturing the intersegmental membrane between the terga of the sixth and seventh segments on the right side of the abdomen of the female. Fertilization takes place while the eggs are still in the ovary of the female, and there is some embryonic development prior to the eggs being laid.

There is only one genus in the family, namely Lyctocoris, with 27 species worldwide. Eight species occur in North America and 6 of the these are found in Canada. Five species occur in British Columbia, two of which L. okanaganus Kelton & Anderson and L. rostratus Kelton & Anderson are endemic and rare. Both have been found in the Okanagan Valley under the bark of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). L. rostratus has also been collected on western white pine (Pinus monticola).

Family NABIDAE (Damsel bugs)

Damsel bugs are active predators, and important in the natural control of pests in agroecosystems. Most species are dull, drab and brownish, and occur actively searching for prey on vegetation. However, there are other species that occur as active predators on the ground, and these are frequently shiny black.

Damsel bugs are elongate in shape, generally about 10 mm in length, although the range is from 5-15 mm. The head is elongate, has 4- or 5-segmented antennae, ocelli, and a 4-segmented rostrum which arises from the apex of the head, and is usually curved. Adults may be fully winged, or the wings may be abbreviated (brachypterous), represented by short pads only. When fully developed, the hemelytra may have a costal fracture, and the membrane has two or three elongate cells, usually with emanating veins and a stub vein. The forelegs have a characteristic dense pad of setae at the distal end of the tibia. The male genitalia are usually symmetrical.

Worldwide there are 20 genera and some 500 described species. In North America there are 11 genera and 39 species. Seven genera occur in Canada, with 22 species reported to date. So far 5 genera and 16 species have been recorded in British Columbia. Most are native species, although Himacerus major (Costa), currently confined to coastal areas in the lower mainland, is an alien introduced species. It is usually ground dwelling, has distinctive brown dark bands on the apical half of all femora, and evidently came into the province in ship ballast. Hoplistoscelis heidemanni (Reuter) with its annulated tibiae is a distinctive short-winged species, rare and confined to the extreme South Okanagan. Nabis lovetti (Harris) likewise is very rare, and confined to damp locations in the south-east part of Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands. The elongate 10-14 mm long Nabicula propinqua (Reuter) has only been collected in British Columbia on the salt flats at Tsawwassen.

Most of the five species of Nabis and six species of Nabicula are very difficult to tell apart, with definitive species recognition based on the shape of the male claspers. However, the shiny black, short-winged, 9-10.5 mm long Nabicula subcoleoptrata is easy to recognize and to date has only been found in the southern interior. It has 4-segmented antennae and can only be confused with the smaller, short-winged, shiny black, 5.5-7 mm long ground dwelling Pagasa species. However the latter have 5-segmented antennae.

Of the remaining dull brownish coloured damsel bugs, Nabicula nigrolineata nearctica Kerzhner, Nabicula flavomaginata (Scholtz) and Nabis inscriptus Kirby are confined to the northern third of the province, while Nabicula vanduzeei (Kirkaldy) occurs only in the dry, southern interior grasslands. The other species are widely distributed.

Superfamily MIROIDEA

Family MICROPHYSIDAE (Microphysids)

These are minute, 1.3-3.0 mm long predators, usually found associated with mosses and lichens growing on the ground or on vegetation. The body is oval or oblong, flattened and often rather beetle-like in appearance. The species occur as both fully winged (macropterous) or short-winged (brachypterous) forms. Macropterous forms have large ocelli on the head. The rostrum appears to be 3-segmented, and the metathorax is without either an ostiolar groove or evaporatorium. In macropterous forms the costal margin is expanded, and a costal fracture and cuneus is present. The hemelytral membrane has a single closed cell and a distinct stub in the postero-lateral angle. The legs have 2-segmented tarsi and the male genitalia are symmetrical.

Worldwide there are five genera and 23 recognized species. Four genera and five species occur in North America, with 2 genera and four species recorded in Canada, all alien introduced.

Loricula bipunctata (Perris) has been collected by beating lower branches of 7 m Douglas fir (Psuedotsuga mensiesii) in a Saanichton Seed Orchard. It is likely that it was brought into the country on European nursery or stock. Loricula elegantula (Baerenspring) was obtained by rearing immatures collected from log-bolts used to buttress slabs of marble imported from Europe.

Family MIRIDAE (Plant bugs)

Members of this large and very diverse family are usually plant sucking and can become major pests. Others are obligate or facultative predators and are useful in biological control.

The body of plant bugs is elongate, oval or rounded, but is usually quite fragile, and cryptically coloured green or brown, although bright red, black or boldly marked species are not uncommon. The head may or may not have ocelli, and the antennae and rostrum are both 4-segmented. The metathorax usually has a distinct auriculate scent gland evaporative areas. While most species are fully winged (macropterous), short-winged forms do occur, and the wings are sometimes only slightly shortened. The hemelytra of fully winged forms usually have a distinct costal fracture and cuneus, and the membrane has one or two closed cells. The legs have 2-segmented trochanters, and usually 3-segmented tarsi, although 2-segmented tarsi occur in some genera. The male has asymmetrical claspers.

Some species are sexually dimorphic. Wings may be present in the male and not in the female, and some of the wingless females are quite ant-like.

Worldwide there are at least 1200 genera and over 20,000 described species. In North America there are over 250 genera and more than 2000 species. In Canada 141 described genera and 702 described species are recorded to date. The British Columbia fauna as presently known is composed of 105 known genera and 355 described species, 31 of which are alien introduced species. Some of the latter are pests, while others are useful predators. The pest species include the 7-9 mm long greenish alfalfa plant bugs (Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze)) and the small, 2.6 mm long, pale mullein bug (Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür)). The mullein bug not only occurs on the introduced mullein (Verbascum thapsus), but is a serious pest of apples. However, at times it can also be a useful predator. The introduced black-knee capsid (Blepharidopterus angulatus (Fallén)) is a useful predator on several fruit crops.

Among the native plant bugs, perhaps the most serious pests are various species of Lygus. These include the lucerne plant bug (Lygus elisus Van Duzee)), the western tarnished plant bug (L. hesperus Knight) and the Tarnished plant bug (L. lineolaris (Palisot)). They attack many crops.

Superfamily TINGOIDEA

Family TINGIDAE (Lace bugs)

Lacebugs are rather delicate insects that get their common name from the numerous, small, lace-like cells of the hemelytra and pronotal flanges. They are plant feeders, and often quite host specific.

They are rather small, 2-8 mm long insects without ocelli, and with 4-segmented antennae with the first two segments short and stout. The hemelytra lack clear division into clavus, corium and membrane. The short legs have 2-segmented tarsi, and the thorax ventrally has a distinct rostral groove.

Worldwide there are about 250 genera and approximately 1900 species. In North America there are 23 genera and 154 described species. The Canadian fauna includes 15 genera and at least 47 species. To date, 11 genera and 32 species have been reported in British Columbia. Most of these belong to the genus Corythucha, which contains 13 species in the province. There are three introduced species, Stephanitis rhododendri Horvath on rhododendrons, S. takeyoi Drake & Maa on Pieris japonica, and Dictyonota fuliginosa Costa on introduced broom (Cytisus scoparius).

Superfamily REDUVIODEA

Family PHYMATIDAE (Ambush bugs)

These distinctive, but cryptically coloured ambush predators are usually found hidden in flower heads, waiting for the visit of their insect prey. Ambush bugs are stout bodied, yellow, brown and black coloured with greatly enlarged for femora. The latter have the fore tibia and tarsus fused, usually lying within a groove on the femur. The fourth antennal segment is clavate, and the head and pronotum have various spinose projections. The prosternum has a median longitudinal stridulatory groove that is minutely transversing striate, and the abdomen is widest in the middle.

Worldwide there are 26 genera and 281 morphologically distinctive species. Three genera and 27 species occur in North America. Only the genus Phymata with three species is reported in Canada, with all of these recorded in British Columbia. The smallest species Phymata vicina Hardlirsch is 8.3-8.4 mm in length, has a linear or sublinear carina on the scutellum and is known only from the South Okanagan. The other two species are somewhat larger, being 8.2-9.5 mm in length. Both have a cruciform or subcruciform carina on the scutellum, but otherwise are extremely alike. Males are needed for definite identification, and these differ in the relative length of the antennal segments. In Phymata americana Melin the male has the fourth antennal segment equal to or almost equal to the combined length of the second and third segments. In P. pennsylvanica Hardlirsch the males has the fourth antennal segment distinctly longer than the combined length of the second and third segments. This latter species so far is only recorded from southern Vancouver Island. P. americana, represented in British Columbia by the subspecies metcalfi Evans, occurs in the southern half of the province, both on the coast and the interior. It is usually found on yellow flowers, particularly golden rod (Solidago spp.), sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata), antelope brush (Pursia tridentata) and rabbit brush (Ericameria nauseolus), but also can be found on white clematis (Clematis ligusticifolia) and other plants.

Family REDUVIIDAE (Assassin bugs)

Assassin bugs are active predators, and include species that feed on the blood of vertebrates, although none of these occur naturally in British Columbia. They are quite varied in appearance, being stick-like and fragile in some species, and robust and heavy-bodied in others. The head usually has ocelli, is rather neck-like behind the eyes, but lacks long sensory setae or trichobothria. There is a distinctive, usually 3-segmented, stout rostrum with the first segment curving away from the head in side view. The prosternum usually has a characteristic median longitudinal stridulatory groove that is minutely transversely striated. The hemelytra lack a costal fracture, and the membrane usually has two complete cells and a few veins emanating posteriourly. The forelegs are usually used in prey capture and so are frequently quite raptorial. They have glandular setae on the forelegs which aid in prey securement. Legs also have setae pads at the apex of the tibia. The first abdominal segment has paired Brindley’s gland openings dorso-laterally on the thoracic-abdominal junction. The male genitalia are usually symmetrical.

Worldwide there are about 930 genera and 6500 species. Forty-seven genera and 158 species are recorded in North America. In Canada, there are 15 genera and 26 species occurring naturally. Nine genera and 14 species have so far been identified in British Columbia. The species most likely to be seen is the almost completely black, 17-22 mm long masked hunter (Reduvius personatus (L.)). The species is quite common in the dry interior in houses and outbuildings, where it feeds on other insects. The immature insects, often covered with debris can at times be found in hidden crevices and spaces. Fully grown or almost fully grown nymphs overwinter, and adults emerge in the spring, having taken two years to pass from egg to adult. The adults are most active at night and are frequently attracted to light.

Infraorder PENTATOMORPHA

Superfamily ARADOIDEA

Family ACANTHOSOMATIDAE (Acanthosomatids)

Robust, pentatomoid bugs, 6.5 to 10 mm long, brownish and green in colour, with 5-segmented antennae. The head is keeled laterally, and the scutellum is large and triangular, but does not cover the entire abdomen. The mesosternum has a strongly projecting keel-like median carina, and the base of the abdomen has a long, spine-like, anteriorly projecting process. The tibia have slender spines, and the tarsi are 2-segmented.

This family is often treated as a subfamily of the Pentatomidae. It is most abundant in boreal or high latitude temperate regions, but also occurs in subtropical areas at high elevations.

Worldwide there are 180 species in 48 genera. Two genera, with four species in total, occur in North America and Canada. Both genera are present in British Columbia. The genus Elasmostethus Fieber, with three species in Canada, has the ostiolar canal on the metapleura, elongate and surpassing the middle of this sclerite. Elasmostethus atricornis (Van Duzee), with black antennae, is a species that is restricted to eastern Canada and the north-eastern United States. The other two species of Elasmostethus in Canada have pale antennae. Elasmostethus cruciatus (Say) occurs across North America, and has a pale abdominal venter, without distinct medio-lateral black spots. It is relatively common in British Columbia and is somewhat polyphagous, but mostly feeds and reproduces on alder (Alnus). Elasmostethus interstinctus (Linnaeus) is a Holarctic species, very similar to E. cruciatus, but has distinct black spots on the abdominal sterna medio-laterally. It is confined to Alaska, the western part of the Yukon, and northern British Columbia, north of the Stikine R. In England, it is known as the "birch bug", and feeds on alder, beech, and aspen.

The genus Elasmucha Stål, with a single species E. lateralis (Say) north of Mexico, occurs continent wide, and is not uncommon in British Columbia. It is recognized by having a shorter ostiolar canal, that extends only to the middle of the metapleuron. It is most commonly found on birch (Betula), especially on the catkins, and exhibits maternal care of the young.

Family ARADIDAE (Flatbugs)

Flatbugs, are usually rather bark-like in appearance, and frequently, but not exclusively, live under bark feeding on fungi. Some are found on the exposed surface of Polyporus fungi. As the common name implies, the body is very flattened dorso-ventrally. They are brownish or blackish in colour, elongate-oval in shape and have a granular surface. The head lacks antennal grooves and the antennae are stout. In size they range from 3-11 mm in length. Many species are wingless.

Worldwide there are at least 21 genera and about 1800 species. Ten genera and 122 species are recorded from North America. Four genera and at least 52 species occur in Canada. All three genera occur in British Columbia, where 31 species have so far been identified. Twenty-seven of these belong to the genus Aradus and are extremely difficult to tell apart.

The genus Aradus can be recognized by the fact that the buccalae are small and do not extend anteriorly on either side of the tylus, and the rostrum reaches or extends posteriorly beyond the fore coxae. In the other two genera, namely Aneurus and Mezira, the buccalae are long, usually extend forward beyond the tip of the tylus, and the rostrum does not project backward beyond the base of the head. In Aneurus, with three species in British Columbia, the scutellum is rounded apically. In the genus Mizira, represented by M. pacifica Usinger on southern Vancouver Island, the scutellum is triangular in shape.

Superfamily COREOIDEA

Family alydidae (Broad headed bugs)

These bugs are elongate, with a slender body and are either rather uniform brown-black or chestnut coloured. The head is broad with prominent ocelli, and the bucculae do not extend beyond the base of the antennae. Both the antennae and legs are relatively long. The metathoracic scent-glands usually have a conspicuous lateral opening, while the membrane of the hemelytra has numerous veins.

Broad headed bugs are plant feeders and fly readily. However, little is known about their biology.

Worldwide there are approximately 42 genera and 250 species. Twelve genera and 32 species are recorded in North America. Five genera and nine species are recorded in Canada. Only three genera, Alydus, Megalotomus and Tollius occur in British Columbia. Alydus represented by four species, Tollius by two species, and Megalotomus by one species namely M. quinquespinosus (Say). All have one or two prominent rows of spines ventrally on the hind femora.

Megalotomus quinquespinosus is reddish brown, has the basal third to a half of the fourth antennal segment white, and contrasting with the dark distal part. It occurs on the south coast and the southern interior in the province. The genus Tollius can be distinguished from Alydus by the fact that the latter has a distinct auriculate peritreme to the metathoracic stink glands, while the former does not. The species of these two genera, are not easy to tell apart.

Family COREIDAE (Squash bugs and allies)

These are broad, robust and brownish bugs, rather dull in appearance, with ocelli on the head and having the bucculae extending posteriorly beyond the base of the antennae when viewed from the side. The metathoracic scent-glands have large lateral openings, and the membrane of the hemelytra has many veins. The hind femora often have spines, and the hind tibia are sometimes laterally expanded.

These insects are phytophagous, and some can be pests, especially on curcubitacious plants. Hence the common name 'squash bugs' applied to some species, particularly those in the genus Anasa.

Worldwide there are about 250 genera and 1800 species. Thirty-three genera and 91 species are reported from North America, many of these from the southern and southwestern states. Eleven genera and 14 species are recorded from Canada. There are only 4 genera and 13 species are recorded from Canada. There are 4 genera and only 6 species in British Columbia. The most distinctive of these is the quite large, some 1.7-1.8 cm long Western conifer-seed bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann). Recognized by the overall reddish-brown colour and expansions on the hind tibia, this has recently spread across the United States from the west, and entered eastern Canada via the USA. As the common name indicates, this species is a pest of conifer-seed orchards. Adults and nymphs feed on developing seeds, leaving no obvious sign of cone or seed damage. However, at harvest, seeds can be completely emptied. Estimates of the damage they can cause range from <5 to 70% for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), from 70 to 80% for western white pine (Pinus monticola), up to 55% for ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa), up to 2.1% for whitebark pine (P. albicaulis), and about 14% for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var latifolia). This conspicuous bug overwinters as adults in sheltered places, and numbers of individuals often appear in houses or on south facing walls. At times, as they are capable of producing defensive scents, they are considered a nuisance when they invade homes.

The squash bug Anasa tristis (DeGeer) has been collected in the South Okanagan, but not reported as a pest in British Columbia. Another species of coreid, Coriomeris insularis Dolling and Yonke is endemic, being found to date only on south-east Vancouver and the Gulf Islands in the world. It is thus of some conservation concern, although nothing is known of its habits except that it occurs in grassy habitats.

Family RHOPALIDAE (scentless plant bugs)

These 5-12 mm long bugs, are phytophagous, being common in weedy areas. The head has large raised ocelli, while the corium of the hemelytra has closed cells, and the membrane has numerous veins. As the common name suggests, the scent-gland openings on the metathorax are absent or very small.

Worldwide there are some 18 genera and 209 recognized species. Ten genera and 39 species occur in North America. There are 7 genera and 18 species in Canada, and these 7 genera are represented in British Columbia by 15 species. Most species are dull and brownish in colour, but the western boxelder bug (Boisea rubrolineata (Barber)) is 11-14 mm long, black with bright red markings. It is an arboreal species, often found in great numbers feeding on the seeds of its host plant, the box elder tree (Acer neguno). This bug overwinters as an adult, and in the southern interior in the fall can often be found congregating in masses on the sunny sides of buildings. They frequently become a nuisance by entering houses for the winter. They can emerge and mass again in the spring. In eastern Canada, the related boxelder bug (L. trinittata (Say)) has similar habits. They can give off an unpleasant odour if squashed.

Superfamily LYGAEOIDEA

Family artheneidae (Artheneids)

These 4.0-4.5 mm long, oval-shaped bugs are somewhat flattened. The head has ocelli, but these ocelli are not circled by a groove. The pronotum has explanate lateral margins, or has a wide flattened carina. The membrane of the hemelytra has 4-5 simple veins, and the tarsi are 3-segmented. The abdomen has the spiracles on segment 2 dorsal, while those on segments 3 and 4 are ventral. Trichobothria are present on the sternum of abdominal segments 4 and 5, and the sternum of abdominal segment 7 in the male is without clusters or comb of setae.

Worldwide there are 6 genera and 18 species. There are just two of these that are accidental, alien introductions in North America, namely the cattail associated Chilacis typhae (Perrin) and Holcocranum saturejae (Kolenati). While H. saturejae is recorded from both the eastern and south-western United States, it has not yet been reported in Canada. Chilacis typhae is more widely distributed in the eastern and western United States and is now known from Ontario and British Columbia. To date it has only been taken near Osoyoos in British Columbia, in the pistillate heads or spikes of cattail (Typha latifolia). However, it probably occurs in many other areas of the province. It is evidently restricted to feeding on spikes of Typha, typically those that have been tunneled by larvae of the microlepidepteran Limnaecia phargmitella Stainton. Populations of these bugs occur in cattail heads from May to October, but are most easily collected in the fall, when the infested heads can be gathered, placed in containers, and monitored to see if these seed bugs emerge.

Family BERYTIDAE (Stilt bugs)

These long-legged, distinctive bugs have a very slender elongate body and long antennae. The ocelli on the head are nearly encircled by a distinct groove, and the 4-segmented antennae have the first segment elongate, slender, often clavate, and subequal in thickness to and nearly always longer than the second and third segments. The rostrum is 4-segmented, and the abdominal spiracles are all dorsal.

Stilt bugs, which get their common name from their thread-like legs and antennae, are usually phytophagous, but can sometimes be predaceous. One species Jalysus wickhami Van Duzee can be particularly common in the USA on tobacco and tomatoes, and has been studied as a potential predator of lepidopteran eggs and aphids on tobacco. However, on tomatoes it often is a pest feeding on blossoms and fruit stems.

Worldwide there are about 39 genera and 150 species. Seven genera and 13 species occur in North America. Four genera and 5 species have been recorded from Canada. Three genera and four species have been found in British Columbia. The most common is Neoneides muticus (Say), easily recognized by the single down-curved process on the front of the head, and body length of 7.4-10.00 mm. Another species Jalysus wickhami Van Duzee is very similar in appearance, but is slightly smaller (6.6-8.2 mm long), and has only a slight nodule on the head. The rare Hoplinus echinata (Uhler) is 3.3-3.4 mm in length and has the head, pronotum, corium and clavus with numerous elongate sharp spines. It is so far reported from Wasa and the South Okanagan.

Family BLISSIDAE (Chinch bugs)

Chinch bugs are small (3-4 mm long), robust ground dwelling bugs that have a black, grayish pubescent body and distinct ocelli on the head, but these are not encircled by a groove. The pronotal calli lack a transverse impressed groove, and the scutellum lack a cross-shaped carina. Although most specimens are short-winged, fully winged forms have elytra without punctures and veins in the whitish membrane. The abdomen has the spiracles on the eight segment ventral, and the abdominal terga are transverse and do not have the sutures curved forward.

Worldwide there are about 50 genera and 385 species. Three genera and 29 species are recognized in North America. Two genera and 6 species are recorded from Canada, but so far only one species is reported from British Columbia. At the moment this is identified as the Western chinch bug (Blissus occidiuus Barber), but this name may be incorrect, and more than one species may be present. Identification of species of Blissus in western North America needs clarification. In the eastern North America, the hairy chinch bug (Blissus leucopterus hirtus Montandon) is a major pest of lawns, and the Blissus in British Columbia has likewise been reported as a lawn pest. However, whereas B. leucopterus in the east annually can do millions of dollars damage to cereal and other crops, the species in British Columbia are fortunately not so destructive

Family CYMIDAE (Cymids)

These are small, 3-5 mm long, pale, straw-coloured Carex-feeding, elongate-oval bugs. The head has each ocellus nearly encircled by a distinct furrow, the bucculae are short, and the first antennal segment is short, stout and barrel-shaped. The hemelytra are opaque and distinctly and closely punctate, while the membrane has 4 or 5 single veins. All abdominal spiracles are dorsal.

Worldwide 14 genera and 76 species are recognized. Three genera and 11 species are known from North America. There are five species in Canada, all in the genus Cymus. Two of these occur in British Columbia. The widely distributed Cymus luridus Stål is about 5 mm long, has a short tylus, and the median pale longitudinal carina on the pronotum extending from anterior margin to beyond the middle of the disc. The other species, Cymus coriacipennis Stål is confined to the South Okanagan, as far as known. It is only 3.5 mm long, has a tylus that extends well beyond the distal end of the first antennal segment, and lacks a distinct pale median carina on the pronotum.

Family GEOCORIDAE (Big-eyed bugs)

These are ground dwelling, short, robust bugs with prominent eyes, projecting laterally to or beyond the hind angles of the pronotum. The tylus is usually sulcate and the ocelli are not encircled by grooves. The hemelytra are distinctly punctate, and have a clavus that is distinctly narrowed apically, the claval commissure being very short. The membrane has 4 or 5 simple veins. The abdominal terga have the sutures between segments 4/5 and 5/6 curved forward in the middle. The spiracles on abdominal segments 3 and 4 are dorsal, those on segments 5 and 6 being ventral.

Although these big-eyed bugs at times are phytophagous, they are more commonly active predators. They are frequent in agroecosystems and are important in natural biological control.

Worldwide there are 14 genera and about 219 species. Two genera and 28 species occur in North America. Both genera are found in Canada. The genus Isthmocoris is represented by a single species I. piceus (Say) in Ontario. There are seven species of Geocoris in Canada, six of which occur in British Columbia. The commonest species is G. bullatus (Say), which occurs in all areas of the province in damp, weedy areas, especially along roadsides.

Family HETEROGASTRIDAE

The head has eyes that are rounded and on short stalks. The hemelytral membrane has 4 or 5 single veins and two closed cells basally. All abdominal spiracles are ventral and the dorsal surface of the body is covered with dense silvery setae.

This family is abundant and widespread in the Old World tropics, with some 22 genera and 92 species. These are robust bugs, quite variable in appearance. However, there is only one genus, Heterogaster in the New World, represented by just two species. Only one of these, H. behrensii (Uhler) occurs in Canada, being restricted to British Columbia. This species is dull brown and black, about 7 mm long, with legs and antenna banded with yellow and black.

So far, this western North American species has only been collected in British Columbia near Oliver. It was swept from stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

Family LYGAEIDAE

Dull brownish, grey-brown or brightly coloured red and black species. Head without trichobothria and without a groove encircling each ocellus. The antennae are 4-segmented. The pronotal calli have an impressed, transverse, usually shiny groove. The scutellum usually has a distinct cross-shaped elevation. The hemelytra have basically only 4-5 simple veins. The forelegs have femora that are not greatly incrassate, and the tarsi are 3-segmented. All spiracles on the abdomen are ventral. There are trichobothria ventrally on segments IV and V. All abdominal terga are transverse, with the suture not curved forward. Nymphs have dorsal abdominal scent-gland openings between terga IV/V and V/VI.

Most species feed above ground on plants although many may live among ground litter when seeds from the host plant have fallen and are abundant.

Worldwide, there are at least 101 genera and 825 species. In North America there are 14 genera and 70 species. Eleven genera and 25 species have been recorded in Canada. So far, nine genera and 18 species have been recognized in British Columbia. As presently recognized, there are three subfamilies in the Lygaeidae. All occur in this province.

In the subfamily Ischnorhynchinae, the commonest species is the Holarctic, oval, reddish, 4-5 mm long, Kleidocerys resedae (Panzer). This is frequently encountered feeding on birch or alder catkins, although it also feeds on the seed heads of rhododendrons. A slightly smaller relative K. franciscanus (Stål) is quite common on the flower and seed heads of Ocean-spray (Holodiscus discolor Pursh (Maxim.) In the subfamily Lygaeinae, the commonest species is the 10-12 mm long, red and black, lesser milkweed bug (Lygaeus kalmii kalmii Stål). This has a pale margin to the black hemelytral membrane, which also has more central pale spots. Usually associated with the milkweed species Asclepias speciosa Torr., it can sequester cardiac glycosides from this plant and store them for defense. In the subfamily Orsillinae, the commonest species is the northern false chinch bug (Nysius niger Baker). This is 3-4.5 mm long, dull grey-brown, elongate and feeds on the seeds of many plants.

Family OXYCARENIDAE

These are rather small, 2.6 to 3.5 mm long, somewhat flattened bugs, with a rather porrect head. The ocelli are not encircled by a distinct groove, and the head lacks trichobothria. The lateral pronotal margins are rounded or at most, weakly carinate. The tarsi are 3-segmented, and the hemelytra have basically 4-5 simple veins. The abdomen has spiracles ventral on segments III to VII, dorsal on segment II, and abdominal sternum V has at most a single posterior trichobothrium. The female abdomen is usually truncate caudally, and segment VII in the male has transverse combs or clusters of setae ventrally.

Most species are seed feeders, in North America frequently being found on the ground. Worldwide there are 23 genera and 144 species. Two genera and 10 species are currently recognized in North America. Only one genus with four species occur in Canada, all being found in British Columbia. The most widely distributed is the transcontinental, 3 to 3.7 mm long, Crophius disconotus (Say).

Family PACHYGRONTHIDAE

These seed bugs have the body coarsely punctate, and are rather dull grayish-brownish in colour. The head lacks trichobothria, and the fore femora are strongly incrassate, and much thicker than the thickness of the hind femora. The hemelytral membrane has 4-5 simple veins, without a closed basal cell. All the abdominal spiracles are ventral, and the female has an ovipositor that divides sterna VI and VII in the midline.

Species in this family are phytophagous, frequently feeding above ground on seeds on plants.

Worldwide there are four genera and 50 species. Three genera and seven species occur in North America, with two genera and three species occurring in Canada. Only one species Phlegyas annulicrus Stål occurs in British Columbia. It is confined to the South Okanagan, is 4.5-5 mm long, and is usually found on three-awn grass Aristida longiseta Steud.

Family RHYPAROCHROMIDAE

These seed bugs are usually dull brown uniform or mottled brown and black species, typically with trichobothria on the head, and usually with the suture between abdominal sterna IV and V curving anteriorly and not attaining the lateral margin of the abdomen. The fore femora are usually incrassate, and frequently armed below with stout spines. The abdominal spiracles are variable in position, but those on the second abdominal segment are always ventral.

Most species in this family are ground, seed feeding species. Some are myrmecomorphia especially in the nymphal stages.

Worldwide there are over 366 genera and 1974 species. In North America there are at least 56 genera and 165 species. So far 37 genera and 69 species have been recognized in Canada. Twenty-three genera and 41 species occur in British Columbia. On the coast the rust-brown, flattened cone swelling Gastrodes pacificus (Provancher) is frequently found on Douglas-fir. A uniform brown, setose ground dwelling alien species Megalonotus sabulicola (Thomason) is common in the interior. Since it seems to feed on the seeds of introduced knapweeds, it may have some useful aspects. However, most species in this family are little known.

Superfamily PIESMATOIDEA

Family PIESMATIDAE (Ash-gray leaf bugs)

These are small insects, less than 5 mm in length, pale straw-coloured, with reticulate forewings and prothorax. The head lacks ocelli and trichobothria, but tends to have processes projecting forward on each side of the tylus. The hemelytra membrane has 4-5 single veins, and the tarsi are 2-segments. Abdominal trichobothria are lacking on segment IV and V.

North American species feed on species of Amaranthaceae and Chenopadiaceae. Worldwide there are four genera and 21 species. Only the genus Piesma occurs in North America with seven recognized species. Four of these species occur in Canada, with two species in British Columbia. The commonest species is the 2.7-3.2 mm long Piesma cinereum (Say). The primary hosts of this continent wide species are species of the plant genus Amaranthus, Atriplex, Chenopodium and Salsola. It is a vector of the virus causing Sugar Beet Savoy which stunts and distorts the plants and reduces sugar yield.

Superfamily PENTATOMOIDEA

Family Acanthosomatidae (Insert common name)

Insert Text - GGES to provide text.

Family CYDNIDAE (Burrowing bugs)

Black or reddish brown, 2-16 mm long, robust insects, usually shiny, with an ovoid and convex body. The antennae are 5-segmented. The fore tibia are flattened, spiny and adapted for digging. The middle and hind coxae have a fringe of stiff bristles at the tips, and the middle and hind tibiae have rows of stout spines. The tarsi are 3-segmented. The ostiolar groove on the metapleuron is elongate. The scutellum is triangular.

These are phytophagous bugs, usually feeding on roots of plants. A few feed on plants above ground. Worldwide there are over 70 genera and some 300 species. Thirteen genera and 43 species occur in North America. To date, 7 genera and 11 species are reported from Canada, with 5 of these genera and 5 species known from British Columbia. Most species are confined to the South Okanagan, but Sehirus cinctus albonotatus Dallas, with its distinctive white spot at the apex of the corium is more widely distributed in the province. It is the only cydnid in our area that lives above ground, feeding on the aerial parts of plants.

Family PENTATOMIDAE (Stink bugs)

Stink bugs are ovoid to elliptical in shape, up to 20 mm long, usually somewhat flattened dorsally, and slightly to moderately convex ventrally. They are often dull coloured, but some species are boldly marked. Ocelli are present, and the antennae are usually 5-segmented. The pronotum is relatively large. The scutellum is also relatively large, usually triangular or subtriangular, and it does not normally conceal the hemelytra. The latter have the claval commissure reduced or absent. The mesosternum lacks a median carina. The tarsi are 3-segmented.

Most stink bugs are plant feeders, with a distinct preference for immature fruits and seeds. However, one group (subfamily Aspinae) are predaceous.

Worldwide there are some 760 genera and over 4100 species. There are 61 genera and 225 species reported in North America. So far 31 genera and 74 species have been recorded in Canada. To date 21 genera and 42 species are known from British Columbia. Two of the most commonly encountered are the 5 to 7 mm long black and red Cosmopela bimaculata (Thomas) and the larger 10 to 11 mm long brown and green Banasa stink bug (Banasa dimidiata (Say)). The latter is often encountered on the cones of conifers.

Family SCUTELLERIDAE (Scutellerids or shield bugs)

Robust, dull brownish, blackish or black stink bugs with a greatly enlarged U-shaped scutellum, usually entirely covering the abdomen. The antennae are 5-segmented, and the membrane of the forewing has many veins. The prosternum of the thorax has a distinct median sulcus, and the tarsi are 3-segments.

Shield bugs are phytophagous, a few being pests of crops, especially grain crops in the Near East. In Canada they are most common in grassland ecosystems.

Worldwide there are about 100 genera and some 400 species. Sixteen genera and 35 species are known from North America, with eight of these genera and 13 species reported in Canada. Five genera and nine species are recorded from British Columbia. Homaemus aeneifrons consors Uhler is the commonest species in the province, being found in grasslands and often in mountainous areas feeding on the seedheads of Dryas drummondii.

Family THYREOCORIDAE (Negro bugs)

Black, oval and usually shiny, appearing rather beetle-like. The scutellum is large and U-shaped, covering most of the forewings and abdomen. A claval commissure is absent. The tibiae characteristically have two rows of thick black spines, but the fore tibiae are not expanded and modified for digging. These bugs typically occur up on vegetation or running on the ground.

Negro bugs are phytophagous, feeding on plant juices. They are found almost exclusively in the Western Hemisphere, although there is one Palaearctic genus.

Worldwide there are about nine genera and over 100 species. Four genera and 42 species occur in North America, with two of these genera and 11 species reported in Canada. So far both genera and six of the species are recorded in British Columbia.

The commonest species is Corimelaena extensa Uhler, which occurs on south-east Vancouver Island and the dry interior. It is frequently found on the mature spikes of mullein (Verbascum thapsus).


 

Please cite these pages as:

Author, date, page title. In:   Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2017. E-Fauna BC: Electronic Atlas of the Fauna of British Columbia [www.efauna.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Date Accessed]

© Copyright 2017 E-Fauna BC.