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Andelman, S. J., and E. Gray. 1992. Viability and recovery of western pond turtle (CLEMMYS MARMORATA) populations in Washington state. Abstract, Society for Conservation Biology, 6th Annual Meeting, p. 33.

Bertram, N. 2004. “Great Basin” Gopher Snake, Pituophis catenifer deserticola, In: Accounts and Measures for Managing Identified Wildlife – Accounts V. 2004. BC Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC.

British Columbia Conservation Data Centre. 2005. BC Species and Ecosystem Explorer. BC Ministry of Environment, Victoria BC. Available: (accessed 13 January 2006).

British Columbia Ministry of Environment. 2009. Bullfrog information page. BC Frogwatch Program. Available Accessed July 2009.

Brodie, E. D., Jr., R. A. Nussbaum, and R. M. Storm. 1969. An egg  laying aggregation of five species of Oregon reptiles. Herpetologica 25:223227.

Cameron, M.A. &  R. St. Clair. 1999. COSEWIC Status Report on the Pacific Pond Turtle Clemmys marmorata.  Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario.

Cameron, M.A. and R. St. Clair. 2002. COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Pacific Pond Turtle Clemmys marmorata in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.

Cameron, M. & R. St. Clair. 2003. COSEWIC Status report on the rubber boa Charina bottae. Preliminary 2-month Interim Report.  Prepared for the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario.

Campbell, C.A. & D.W. Perrin. 1997. Status report on the racer Coluber constrictor in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario.

Cannings, S.G., L.R. Ramsay, D.F. Fraser, & M.A. Fraker. 1999. Rare amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of British Columbia. Wildlife Branch and Resource Inventory Branch, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks, Victoria, British Columbia,

Charland, M.B., K.J. Nelson and P.T. Gregory. 1993. Status of the Northern Pacific Rattlesnake in British Columbia. Wildlife Working Report No. WR-54. British Columbia Ministry of Environment. 27pp.

Collins, J. T. and T. W. Taggard. 2009. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians, turtles, reptiles, and crocodilians. Sixth edition. Publication of the Center for North American Herpetology, Lawrence, Kansas. Available from:

Cook, F.R. 1984. Introduction to Canadian Amphibians & Reptiles. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Ontario.  ISBN 0-660-10755-4.

Christian, K.A. 1998. Thermoregulation by the short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassi) at high elevation. Journal of Thermal Biology 23: 395-399.

COSEWIC. 2001. COSEWIC Assessment and status report on the Night Snake Hypsiglena torquata in Canada. Original prepared by Linda Gregory. Committee of the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Hull, Quebec. Available from:

COSEWIC 2006. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Western Painted Turtle Chrysemys picta bellii (Pacific Coast population, Intermountain-Rocky Mountain population and Prairie/Western Boreal - Canadian Shield population) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vii + 40 pp. Available:

COSEWIC. 2009. Update COSEWIC status report on Sharp-tailed Snake, Contia tenuis. D raft. Original prepared by Kristiina Ovaska and Christian Engelstoft. Committee of the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Hull, Quebec.

Crim, J.L., L.D. Spotila, J.R. Spotila, M. O’Connor, R. Reina, C.J. Williams, & F.V. Paladino.  2002. The leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, exhibits both polyandry and polygyny.  Molecular Ecology 11: 2097-2106.

Didiuk, A.B., J.M. Macartney, & L.A. Gregory. 2003. Status report on the Northern Pacific rattlesnake Crotalus oreganus oreganus (Holbrook) in British Columbia. Draft.  Prepared for the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife In Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario.

Diller, L. V. and R. L. Wallace. 1986. Aspects of the life history and ecology of the desert night snake, Hypsiglena torquata deserticola: Colubridae, in southwestern Idaho. The Southwestern Naturalist 3: 55-64.

Emlen, Stephen T. 1976. Lek organization and mating strategies in the Bullfrog. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 1 (3): 283-313.

Engelstoft, C. and K. Ovaska. 1999. Sharp-tailed Snake study on the Gulf Islands and southeastern Vancouver Island, March-November 1998. Unpublished report prepared by Alula Biological Consulting for the BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (now Ministry of Environment), Vancouver Island Regional Office, Nanaimo, B.C. Project # PA-96-242-IN.

Feldman, C. R. and G. S. Spicer. 2002. Mitochondrial variation in sharp-tailed snakes (Contia tenuis): Evidence of a cryptic species. Journal of Herpetology 36:648–655.

Gahl, Megan K., Aram J. K. Calhoun, and Rose Graves. 2009. Facultative Use of Seasonal Pools by American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Wetlands 29(2):697-703.

Govindarajulu, Purnima, Res Altwegg, Bradley R. Anholt. 2005. Matrix model investigation of invasive species control: Bullfrogs on Vancouver Island. Ecological Applications 5 (6): 2161-2170.

Gray, E.M. 1995. DNA fingerprinting reveals a lack of genetic variation in northern populations of the western pond turtle (Clemmys marmorata). Conservation Biology 9: 1244-1254.

Gregory, P.T. 1984. Habitat, diet, and composition of assemblages of garter snakes (Thamnophis) at eight sites on Vancouver Island. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62: 2013-2022.

Gregory, L. 2001. COSEWIC status report on the night snake, Hypsiglena torquata.  Prepared for the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario.

Gregory, P.T. and R.W. Campbell. 1984. The Reptiles of British Columbia. RBCM Handbook. 112 pp.

Hoyer, R. F. 2001. Discovery of a probable new species in the genus Contia. Northwestern Naturalist 82:1116–122.

Lacey, H., C.H. Shewchuk, P.T. Gregory,  M.J. Sarell, & L.A. Gregory. 1996. The occurrence of the night snake, Hypiglena torquata, in British Columbia, with comments on its body size and diet. Canadian Field-Naturalist 110: 620-625.

Larsen, K.W. & P.T. Gregory. 1989. Population size and survivorship of the common garter snake, Thammophis sirtalis, near the northern limit of its distribution. Holarctic Ecology 12: 81-86.

Larsen, K.W., P.T. Gregory and R. Antoniak. 1993. Reproductive ecology of the common garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis at the northern limit of its range. American Midland Naturalist 129: 336-345.

Leonard, W. P. and K. Ovaska. 1998. Contia tenuis. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 677:1–7.

McAlpine, D.F., S.A. Orchard, & K.A. Sendall. 2002.  Recent occurrences of the green turtle from British Columbia waters.  Northwest Science 76: 185-188.

Matsuda, B. M., D. M. Green, and P. T. Gregory. 2006. Amphibians and Reptiles of British Columbia. Royal BC Museum Handbook. Royal BC Museum, Victoria, BC.

Mulcahy, D. G. 2008. Phylogeography and species boundaries of the western North American Night Snake (Hypsiglena torquata): revisiting the subspecies concept. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46: 1095–1115.

NatureServe. 2009. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available at:

Nelson, K.J. 1992. A survey of the distribution, biology, and population trends of the Great basin gopher snake, Pituophis melanoleucus deserticola, in British Columbia.  In consultation with P.T. Gregory, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia.

Nield, D. 2002. Recovery strategy for the Great Basin Gopher Snake (Pituophis catenifer ssp. deserticola). Prepared by D. Nield and the Herpetological Conservation Action Group for the Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection, Central Interior of British Columbia.

Nussbaum, R.A., E.D. Brodie Jr. & R.M. Storm. 1983. Amphibians & Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Press. Moscow, Idaho. ISBN 0-89301-086-3.

Ovaska, K. and C. Engelstoft. 2002. COSEWIC Report on the Status on the Western Skink Eumeces skiltonianus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa. Available:

Ovaska, K., and C. Engelstoft. 2003. Attracting Snakes into your Backyard - tips for reptile-friendly landscaping and gardening. Canada Habitat Stewardship Program, Habitat Conservation Trust Fund, and B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection (now BC Ministry of Environment). 4pp. Available from:

Ovaska, K. and C. Engelstoft , 2008. Conservation of the Sharp-tailed Snake in urban areas on the southern Gulf Islands, British Columbia, Canada. J. C. Mitchell, R. E. Jung Brown, and B. Bartholomew (editors), pp 557 - 564 in Urban Herpetology, Herpetological Conservation Volume III. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Ovaska, K., L. Sopuck, C. Engelstoft, L.Matthias, E.Wind and J. MacGarvie. 2003. Best Management Practices for Amphibians and Reptiles in Urban and Rural Environments in British Columbia. B. C. Ministry of Water Air and Land Protection. 151pp.

Parker, W. S. and W. S. Brown 1980. Comparative ecology of two colubrid snakes in northern Utah – Masticophis t. taenatus and Pituophis melanoleucus deserticola. Milwaukee Public Museum Publications in Biology and Geology, 7, i–vii, 1–104.

Powell, G.L., and A.P. Russell. 1992. Status report on the Short-horned Lizard, Phrynosoma douglassi, in Canada. Submitted to the Committee. on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.

Powell, G.L. & A.P. Russell. 1998. The status of short-horned lizards, Phrynosoma douglasi and P. hernandezi, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 112: 1-16

Rodriguez-Robles, J.A. D.G. Mulcahy, & H.W. Greene. 1999. Feeding ecology of the desert night snake, Hypsiglena torquata (Colubridae). Copeia 1999:93-100.

Rutherford, P.L. and P.T. Gregory. 2003. Habitat use and movement patterns of Northern Alligator Lizards (Elgaria coerulea) and Western Skinks (Eumeces skiltonianus) in Southeastern British Columbia. Journal of Herpetology 37: 98-106.

St. Clair, R.C. & P.T. Gregory. 1990. Factors affecting the northern range limit of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) – winter acidosis or freezing. Copeia 1990: 1083-1089.

St. John, A. 2002. Reptiles of the Northwest. Lone Pine Publishing, Renton, Washington.

Sarell, M.J. 2003. Recovery strategy for the Pigmy Short-horned Lizard (Phrynosoma douglasi) in Canada.  First Draft. Prepared for the Southern Interior Reptile and Amphibian Recovery Team in British Columbia.

Shewchuk, C.H. & H.L Waye. 1995. Status of the western yellow-bellied racer in British Columbia. [INCOMPLETE REFERENCE]

Shewchuk, C. H. 1996. The natural history of reproduction and movement patterns in the Gopher Snake (Pituophis melanoleucus) in Southern British Columbia. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Biology, University of Victoria, BC.

Southern Interior Reptile and Amphibian Recovery Team. 2008. Recovery strategy for the Gopher Snake, deserticola subspecies (Pituophis catenifer deserticola) in British Columbia. Prepared for the B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. 20 pp.

Spotila, J.R., R.D. Reina, A.C. Steyermark, P.T. Plotkin, & F.V. Paladino. 2000. Pacific leatherback turtles face extinction. Nature 405:529-530.

Storm, R. M. and W. P. Leonard (coordinating editors). 1995. Reptiles of Washington and Oregon. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, WA.

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Waye, H.L. and C.H. Shewchuk . 2002. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Gophersnake (Pituophis catenifer) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Weaver, R. E. 2008. Distribution, abundance, and habitat associations of the Night Snake (Hypsiglena torquata) in Washington State. Northwestern Naturalist 89:164-170.

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Wilkinson, S. F., P. T. Gregory, C. Engelstoft, and K. J. Nelson. 2007. The Rumsfeld paradigm: knowns and unknowns in characterizing habitats used by the endangered Sharp-tailed Snake, Contia tenuis, in southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 121:142–149.

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Please cite these pages as:

Author, date, page title. In:   Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Fauna BC: Electronic Atlas of the Fauna of British Columbia []. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Date Accessed]

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