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HOOFED MAMMAL REFERENCES

 

References

 

General Books

 

Banfield, A.W.F. 1975. The mammals of Canada. National Museum of Nat­ural Sciences, National Museums of Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Bookhout, T.A. 1996. Research and management techniques for wildlife and habitats. Bethseda, Maryland: The Wildlife Society.

Chapman, J.A, and G.A. Feldhamer, editors. 1982. Wild mammals of North America. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press.

Hall, E.R., and K.R. Kelson. 1959. The mammals of North America, vol. 2.

New York: The Ronald Press Company.

Kurtén, B., and E. Anderson. 1980. Pleistocene mammals of North America.

New York: Columbia University Press.

Macdonald, D., editor. 1984. The encyclopaedia of mammals. New York:

Facts On File Publications; and Oxford: Equinox (Oxford) Ltd.

Murray, A., editor. 1987. Our wildlife heritage: 100 years of wildlife manage­ment. Victoria: The Centennial Wildlife Society of British Columbia.

Nowak, R.M. 1991. Walker's mammals of the world. 5th ed., vol. 2. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press.

Pielou, E.C. 1991. After the Ice Age: the return of life to glaciated North Amer­ica. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Stelfox, J.B., editor. 1993. Hoofed mammals of Alberta. Edmonton and Van­couver: Lone Pine Publishing.

Stewart, H. 1996. Stone, bone, antler and shell. Vancouver and Toronto: Dou­glas and McIntyre.

Vaughan, T.A. 1986. Mammalogy. 3rd ed. New York: Saunders College Publishing.

 

Selected References

 

Anderson, A.E., and O.C. Wallmo. 1984. Odocoileus hemionus. American Society of Mammalogists, Mammalian Species 219:1-9.

Armleder, H.M., and S.K. Stevenson. 1996. Using alternative systems to integrate Mountain Caribou and timber management in British Columbia. Rangifer, Special Issue 9:141-48.

Armleder, H.M., M.J. Waterhouse, D.G. Keisker and R.J. Dawson. 1994. Winter habitat use by Mule Deer in the central interior of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:1721-25.

Banfield, A.W.F. 1961. A revision of the Reindeer and Caribou, Genus Rangifer. National Museum of Canada, Bulletin No. 177, Biological Series No. 66.

Berger, J., and C. Cunningham. 1994. Bison: mating and conservation in small populations. New York: Columbia University Press.

Bergerud, A.T. 1996. Evolving perspectives on Caribou population dynamics: have we got it right yet? Rangifer, Special Issue 9:95-115.

Bleich, V.C., R.T. Bowyer and J.D. Wehausen. 1997. Sexual segregation in mountain sheep: resources or predation? Wildlife Monographs 134:1-50.

Blood, D.A., Flook, D.R. and W.D. Wishart. 1970. Weights and growth of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep in western Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management 34:451-455.

Blood, D.A., and G.W. Smith. 1984. Weights and measurements of Roosevelt Elk on Vancouver Island. The Murrelet 65:41-44.

Blood, D.A., J.R. McGillis and A.L. Lovaas. 1967. Weights and measurements of Moose in Elk Island National Park, Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist 81:263-69.

Bookhout, T.A. 1996. Research and management techniques for wildlife and habitats.  Bethseda, Maryland: The Wildlife Society.

Bowyer, R.T., and D.M. Leslie, Jr. 1992. Ovis dalli. American Society of Mammalogists, Mammalian Species 393:1-7.

Boyd, R.J. 1978. American Elk. In Big game of North America: ecology and management, edited by J.L. Schmidt and D.L. Gilbert. Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books.

Brunt, K. 1990. Ecology of Roosevelt Elk. In Deer and Elk habitats in coastal forests of southern British Columbia, edited by J.B. Nyberg and D.W. Janz. Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Forests and B.C. Ministry of Environment.

Bubenik, G.A., and A.B. Bubenik, editors. 1990. Horns, pronghorns, and antlers: evolution, morphology, physiology, and social significance. New York: Springer Verlag.

Bunnell, F.L. 1990. Ecology of Black-tailed Deer. In Deer and Elk habitats in coastal forests of southern British Columbia, edited by J.B. Nyberg and D.W. Janz. Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Forests and B.C. Ministry of Environment.

Bunnell, F.L., and N.A. Olsen. 1976. Weights and growth of Dall Sheep in Kluane Park Reserve, Yukon Territory. Canadian Field-Naturalist 90:157-62.

Cannings, R., and S. Cannings. 1996. British Columbia: a natural history.

Vancouver and Toronto: Greystone Books, Douglas and McIntyre.

Cannings, R.A., and A.P. Harcombe. 1990. The vertebrates of British Colum­bia: scientific and English names. Victoria: Royal British Columbia Mu­seum and Wildlife Branch, Ministry of Environment.

Carl, G.C., and C.J. Guiguet. 1972. Alien animals in British Columbia.

Handbook 14, 2nd ed. Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Museum.

Carr, S.M., and G.A. Hughes. 1993. The direction of introgressive hy­bridization between species of North American deer (Odocoileus) as in­ferred from mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences. Journal of Mammal­ogy 74:331-2.

Chabot, D. 1993. Communication. In Hoofed Mammals of Alberta, edited by J.B. Stelfox. Edmonton and Vancouver: Lone Pine Publishing.

Chadwick, D.H. 1983. A beast the color of winter. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.

Chapman, D., and N. Chapman. 1975. Fallow Deer: their history, distribution and biology. Lavenham, Suffolk: Terrence Dalton Limited.

Cichowski, D.B. 1993. Seasonal movements, habitat use, and winter feed­ing ecology of Woodland Caribou in west-central British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Land Management Report 79.

Côté, S.D. 1996. Mountain Goat responses to helicopter disturbance.

Wildlife Society Bulletin 24:681-85.

Côté, S.D., M. Festa-Bianchet and F. Fournier. 1998. Life-history effects of chemical immobilization and radio collars in Mountain Goats. Jour­nal of Wildlife Management 62:745-52.

Cowan, I. McTaggart. 1936. Distribution and variation in deer (Genus Odocoileus) of the pacific coastal region of North America. California Fish & Game 22:155-246.

Cowan, I. McTaggart. 1940. Distribution and variation in the native sheep of North America. American Midland Naturalist 24:505-80.

Cowan, I. McTaggart. 1951. The diseases and parasites of big game mam­mals of western Canada. Proceedings of the Annual Game Convention 5:37-64

Cowan, I. McTaggart. 1987. Science and the conservation of wildlife in British Columbia. In Our wildlife heritage: 100 years of wildlife manage­ment, edited by A. Murray. Victoria: The Centennial Wildlife Society of British Columbia.

Cowan, I. McTaggart, and C.J. Guiguet. 1965. The mammals of British Co­lumbia. Handbook 11, rev. ed. Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Mu­seum.

Cowan, I. McTaggart, and W. McCrory. 1970. Variation in the Mountain Goat, Oreamnos americanus (Blainville). Journal of Mammalogy 51:60-73.


 

Cronin, M.A. 1991. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic relationships of deer (Odocoileus spp.) in western North America. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:1270-79.

Cronin, M.A. 1992. Intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in North American cervids. Journal of Mammalogy 73:70-82.

Darwin, C. 1899. The descent of man and selection in relation to sex. 2nd ed.

London: John Murray.

DeBlase, A.F., and R.E. Martin. 1974. A manual of mammalogy. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm C. Brown.

Demarchi, D.A., and R.A. Demarchi. 1987. Wildlife habitat - the impacts of settlement. In Our wildlife heritage: 100 years of wildlife management edited by A. Murray. Victoria: The Centennial Wildlife Society of British Columbia.

Dimmick, R.W., and M.R. Pelton. 1996. Criteria of sex and age. In Re­search and management techniques for wildlife and habitats, edited by T.A. Bookhout. Bethseda, Maryland: The Wildlife Society.

Eccles, T.R., and D.M. Shackleton. 1979. Recent records of twinning in mountain sheep. Journal of Wildlife Management 43:974-76.

Feldhamer, G.A., K.C. Farris-Renner and C.M. Barker. 1988. Dama dama.

American Society of Mammalogists, Mammalian Species 317:1-8.

Feldhamer, G.A., L.C. Drickamer, S.H. Vessey and J.F. Merritt. 1999.

Mammalogy: adaptation, diversity and ecology. New York: WCB/McGraw­-Hill.

Foster, B.R. 1982. Observability and habitat characteristics of Mountain Goats (Oreamnos americanus, Blainville 1816) in west-central British Co­lumbia. M.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Franzmann, A.W., and C.C. Schwartz, editors. 1998. Ecology and manage­ment of the North American Moose. A Wildlife Management Institute Book. Washington, DC, and London: Smithsonian Institution.

Geist, V. 1963. On the behaviour of the North American Moose (Alces alces andersoni Peterson 1950) in British Columbia. Behaviour 20:377-416.

Geist, V. 1964. On the rutting behaviour of the Mountain Goat. Journal of Mammalogy 45:551-68.

Geist, V. 1966. The evolution of horn-like organs. Behaviour 27:177-214.

Geist, V. 1971. Mountain sheep: a study in behavior and ecology. Chicago:

University of Chicago Press.

Geist, V. 1986. New evidence of high frequency antler wounding in cervids.

Canadian Journal of Zoology 64, 380-384.

Geist, V. 1990. Mule Deer country. Saskatoon, Sask.: Western Producer Prairie Books.

Geist, V. 1991. Phantom subspecies: the Wood Bison Bison bison "athabascae" Rhoads 1897, is not a taxon, but an ecotype. Arctic 44:283-300.

Geist, V., and P. Karsten. 1977. The Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae Rhoads) in relation to the hypothesis on the origin of the American Bison (Bison bison bison). Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 42:119-27.

Goldman, E.A., and R. Kellog. 1940. Ten new White-tailed Deer from North and Middle America. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash­ington 53:81-90.

Gosling, L.M. 1985. The even-toed ungulates: order Artiodactyla - sources, behavioural context, and function of chemical signals. In Social odours in mammals, vol. 2, edited by R.T.E. Brown and D.W. Macdonald. Oxford:

Clarendon Press.

Goss, R.J. 1983. Deer antlers: regeneration, function and evolution. New York:

Academic Press.

Guthrie, R.D. 1990. Frozen fauna of the mammoth steppe: the story of Blue Babe. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Halls, L.K., editor. 1984. White-tailed Deer: ecology and management. The Wildlife Institute. Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books.

Harington, C.R. 1996. Quaternary animals: vertebrates of the Ice Age. In Life in stone: a natural history of British Columbia's fossils, edited by R. Ludvigsen. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Harper, B., S. Cannings, D. Fraser and W.T. Munro. 1994. Provincial lists of species at risk. In Biodiversity in British Columbia, edited by L.E. Harding and E. McCullum. Delta, B.C.: Canadian Wildlife Service.

Harrison, S. 1990. Cougar predation on Bighorn Sheep in the Junction Wildlife Management Area, British Columbia. M.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Hatler, D.F. 1986. Studies of radio-collared Caribou in the Spatsizi Wilder­ness Park area, British Columbia, 1980-1984. Spatsizi Association for Bi­ological Research, Smithers, B.C. Wildlife Report No. 3.

Hatter, I.W., and D. Blower. 1996. History of transplanting Mountain Goats and Mountain Sheep - British Columbia. Proceedings of the Biennial Sym­posium of the Northern Wild Sheep & Goat Council. 10:158-63.

Hatter, J. 1950. The Moose of central British Columbia. Ph.D. thesis, State College of Washington, Pullman.

Heard, D.C., and KL. Vagt. 1998. Caribou in British Columbia: a 1996 status report. Rangifer, Special Issue 10:117-23.

Hebert, D.H. 1967. Natural salt licks as part of the ecology of the Moun­tain Goat. M.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Hebert, D.M. 1973. Altitudinal migration as a factor in the nutrition of Bighorn Sheep. Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Hebert, D.H., and T. Smith. 1986. Mountain Goat management in British Columbia. Proceedings of the Biennial Symposium of the Northern Wild Sheep & Goat Council 5:48-59.

Hebert, D., and S. Harrison. 1988. The impact of Coyote predation on lamb mortality patterns at the Junction Wildlife Management Area. Pro­ceedings of the Biennial Symposium of the Northern Wild Sheep & Goat Council 5:283-91.

Hengevelt, P.E., and M.D. Wood. 1998. Misinchinka Ranges winter ungulate inventory, March 1996. Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program Report No. 175.

Hesselton, W.T., and R.M. Hesselton. 1983. White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus. In Wild mammals of North America, edited by J.A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins Univer­sity Press.

Holm, B., and B. Reid. 1975. Indian art of the Northwest Coast: a dialogue on craftmanship and aesthetics. Houston: Institute for the Arts, Rice Univer­sity.

Hudson, R.J., and R.G. White. 1985. Bioenergetics of wild herbivores. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, Inc.

Hutton, D.A. 1972. Variation in the skulls and antlers of Wapiti (Cervus ela­phus nelsoni Bailey). M.Sc. thesis, University of Calgary, Alberta.

Johnson, D.R., and D.W. Nagorsen. 1990. Evaluation of cranial and antler characteristics to determine sex of Mountain Caribou. Canadian Field­-Naturalist. 104:583-84.

Jones, R.L., and H.C. Hanson. 1985. Mineral licks, geophagy, and biogeo­chemistry of North American ungulates. Ames, Iowa: The Iowa University Press.

Krebs, J.R., and N.B. Davies. 1993. An introduction to behavioural ecology, 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Lankester, M.W., and W.M. Samuel. 1998. Pests, parasites and diseases. In Ecology and management of the North American Moose, edited by A.W. Franzmann and C.C. Schwartz. A Wildlife Management Institute Book. Washington, DC, and London: Smithsonian Institution.

Larter, N.C., and C.C. Gates. 1990. Home ranges of Wood Bison in an ex­panding population. Journal of Mammalogy 71:604-607.

Lent, P.C. 1974. A review of the rutting behaviour in Moose. Le Naturaliste canadien 101:307-323.

Leopold, A. 1942. Game Management, 2nd ed. New York and London: C.

Scribner's Sons.

Leslie, D.M., and K.J. Jenkins. 1985. Rutting mortality among male Roo­sevelt Elk. Journal of Mammalogy 66:163-64.

Lott, D.F. 1974. Sexual and aggressive behaviour of adult male American Bison (Bison bison). In The behaviour of ungulates and its relation to man­agement, edited by V. Geist and F. Walther. IUCN Publications New Se­ries No. 24. Morges, Switzerland: International Union for the Conserva­tion of Nature and Natural Resources.

Macdonald, D., editor. 1984. The encyclopaedia of mammals. New York:

Facts On File Publications; and Oxford: Equinox (Oxford) Ltd.

Mackie, R.J., K.L. Hamilin and D.F. Pac. 1982. Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus. In Wild mammals of North America, edited by J.A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins Univer­sity Press.

Main, M.B., F.W. Weckerly and V.C. Bleich. 1996. Sexual segregation in ungulates: new directions for research. Journal of Mammalogy 77:449-61.

McCullough, D.R. 1965. Sex characteristics of Black-tailed Deer hooves.

Journal of Wildlife Management 29:210-12.

McNay, R.S., and J.M. Voller. 1995. Mortality causes and survival esti­mates for adult female Columbian Black-tailed Deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 59:138-46

Meagher, M. 1986. Bison bison. American Society of Mammalogists, Mam­malian Species 266:1-8.

Miller, F.L. 1982. Caribou Rangifer tarandus. In Wild mammals of North America, edited by J.A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press.

Moody, A., B. Burtin and R. Moody. 1994. An investigation into the Fallow Deer of Sidney Spit Provincial Park. Occasional Paper No. 1. Victoria, B.C.: Parks Branch, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks.

Moore, W.G., and R.L. Marchinton. 1974. Marking behaviour and its so­cial function in White-tailed Deer. In The Behaviour of ungulates and its relation to management, edited by V. Geist and F. Walther. IUCN Publica­tions New Series No. 24. Morges, Switzerland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources,

Muller-Schwartz, D. 1987. Evolution of Cervid olfactory communication.

In Biology and management of the Cervidae, edited by C.M. Wemmer. Washington, DC, and London: Smithsonian Institution.

Murie, O.J. 1975. A field guide to animal tracks, 2nd ed. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Boston: Houghton and Mifflin.

Nagorsen, D.W. 1990. The mammals of British Columbia: a taxonomic cata­logue. Memoir No.4. Victoria: Royal British Columbia Museum.

Nagorsen, D.W. 1996. Opossums, shrews and moles of British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Nagorsen, D.W., and R.M. Brigham. 1993. Bats of British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Nelson, E.W. 1914. Description of a new subspecies of Moose from Wyoming. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 27:71-74.

Nichols, L. 1978. Dall Sheep reproduction. Journal of Wildlife Management 42:570-80.

Nowak, R.M. 1991. Walker's mammals of the world, 5th ed., vol. 2. Balti­more and London: The John Hopkins University Press.

Nyberg, J.B., and D.W. Janz, editors. 1990. Deer and Elk habitats in coastal forests of southern British Columbia. Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Forests and B.C. Ministry of Environment.

Parker, S.P., editor. 1990. Grzimek's encyclopaedia of mammals, vols 4 and 5.

New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing.

Peek, J.M. 1974. A review of Moose food habits in North America. Le Nat­uraliste canadien 101:195-215.

Peterson, R.L. 1952. A review of the living representatives of the genus Alces. Contributions of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology and Paleontol­ogy 34:1-30.

Pielou, E.C. 1991. After the Ice Age: the return of life to glaciated North Amer­ica. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Rezendes, Paul. 1992. Tracks and the art of seeing: how to read animal tracks and sign. Vermont: Camden House Publishing.

Reynolds, H.W., R.M. Hansen and D.G. Peden. 1978. Diets of the Slave River lowlands Bison herd, Northwest Territories, Canada. Journal of Wildlife Management 42:581-90.

Reynolds, H.W., R.D. Glaholt and A.W.L. Hawley. 1982. Bison (Bison bison). In Wild mammals of North America, edited by J.A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press.

Rideout, C.B., and R.S. Hoffmann. 1975. Oreamnos americanus. American Society of Mammalogists, Mammalian Species 63:1-6.

Robbins, C.T. 1993. Wildlife feeding and nutrition. New York: Academic Press.

Robinson, D.J. 1987. Wildlife and the law. In Our wildlife heritage: 100 years of wildlife management, edited by A. Murray. Victoria: The Centennial Wildlife Society of British Columbia.

Roe, F.G. 1951. The North American Buffalo. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Rominger, E.M., and J.L. Oldemeyer. 1990. Early winter diet of Woodland Caribou in relation to snow accumulation, Selkirk Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68:2691-94.

Samuel, W.M. 1993. Parasites and diseases. In Hoofed mammals of Alberta, edited by J.B. Stelfox. Edmonton and Vancouver: Lone Pine Publishing.

Seip, D.R. 1983. Foraging ecology and nutrition of Stone's Sheep. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Fish and Wildlife Report No. R-9.

Schonewald-Cox, C.M., J.W. Bayless and J. Schonewald. 1985. Cranial morphometry of pacific coast Elk (Cervus elaphus). Journal of Mammal­ogy 66:63-74.

Schwantje, H.M. 1988. Causes of Bighorn Sheep mortality and die-offs. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Wildlife Working Report No. WR-35.

Shackleton, D.M. 1985. Ovis canadensis. American Society of Mammalo­gists, Mammalian Species 230:1-9.

Shackleton, D.M. 1991. Social maturation and productivity in Bighorn Sheep: are young males incompetent? Applied Animal Behavioural Science 29:173-84.

Shackleton, D.M., L.V. Hills and D.A. Hutton. 1975. Aspects of variation in cranial characters of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison Linneaus) from Elk Island National Park, Alberta. Journal of Mammalogy 56:871-877.

Shackleton, D.M., and D.A. Hutton. 1971. An analysis of the mechanisms of brooming in mountain sheep horns. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 36:342-50.

Shackleton, D.M., C.C. Shank and B.M. Wikeem. 1999. Natural history of Rocky Mountain and California Bighorn Sheep. In Mountain Sheep of North America, edited by R. Valdez and P.R. Krausman. Tucson: Univer­sity of Arizona Press.

Shank, C.C. 1972. Some aspects of the social behaviour in a population of feral goats (Capra hircus L.). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 30:488-528.

Shannon, N.H., R.J. Hudson, V.C. Brink and W.D. Kitts. 1975. Determi­nants of spatial distribution of Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep. Journal of Wildlife Management 39:387-401.

Sheldon, C. 1912. The wilderness of the North Pacific coast islands. New York:

Charles Scribner's Sons.

Simpson, K., J.P. Kelsall and M. Leung. 1996. Integrated management of Mountain Caribou and forestry in southern British Columbia. Rangifer, Special Issue 9:153-58.

Simpson, K., E. Terry and D. Hamilton. 1997. Toward a Mountain Cari­bou management strategy for British Columbia - habitat requirements and sub-population status. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Wildlife Work­ing Report No. WR-90.

Smith, C.A. 1994. Evaluation of a multivariate model of Mountain Goat winter habitat selection. Proceedings of the Biennial Symposium of the Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council 9:159-65.

Smith, W.P. 1991. Odocoileus virginianus. American Society of Mammalo­gists, Mammalian Species 388:1-13.

Spalding, D.J. 1990. The early history of Moose (Alces alces): distribution and relative abundance in British Columbia. The Royal British Colum­bia Museum (Victoria) Contributions to Natural Science 11:1-12.

Spalding, D.J. 1992. The history of Elk (Cervus elaphus) in British Colum­bia. The Royal British Columbia Museum (Victoria) Contributions to Natural Science 18:1-27.

Spalding, D.J., and J.N. Bone. 1969. The California Bighorn Sheep of the south Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. Victoria: B.C. Fish and Game Branch. Wildlife Management Publication No.3.

Stelfox, J.B., editor. 1993. Hoofed mammals of Alberta. Edmonton and Van­couver: Lone Pine Publishing.

Stevenson, S.K., K.N. Child, G.S. Watts and E.L. Terry. 1991. The Moun­tain Caribou in managed forests program: integrating forestry and habi­tat management in British Columbia. Rangifer, Special Issue 7:130-36.

Strobeck, C., and J. Coffin. 1996. Genetic relationships between Woodland and Barren Ground Caribou. Rangifer, Special Issue 9:397.

Sugden, L.G. 1961. The California Bighorn in British Columbia with particu­lar reference to the Churn Creek herd. Victoria: British Columbia Depart­ment of Recreation and Conservation.

Sutcliffe, A.J. 1985. On the track of Ice Age mammals. Cambridge, Mass.:

Harvard University Press.

Telfer, E.S., and J.P. Kelsall. 1984. Adaptations of some large North Ameri­can mammals for survival in snow. Ecology 65:1828-34.

Tinbergen, N. 1953. Social Behaviour in Animals. London: Methuen.

van Zyll de Jong, C.G. 1986. A systematic study of recent Bison, with par­ticular consideration to the Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae Rhoads 1898). National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. Publication of Natural Sci­ences No. 6.

Vaughan, T.A. 1986. Mammalogy, 3rd ed. New York: Saunders College Publishing.

Wallmo, O.C. 1981. Mule and Black-tailed Deer of North America. The Wildlife Management Institute. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Walther, F.R. 1984. Communication and expression in hoofed mammals.

Bloomington; Indiana University Press.

Ward, P.D. 1997. The call of distant mammoths: why the Ice Age mammals dis­appeared. New York: Copernicus.

Wareham, W. 1991. British Columbia wildlife viewing guide. Edmonton and Vancouver: Lone Pine Publishing.

Waterhouse, M., H. Armleder and R. Dawson. 1993. Winter food habits of Mule Deer in the central interior of British Columbia. Technical Report. Vic­toria: B.C. Ministry of Forests.

Wigal, R.A., and V.L. Collins. 1982. Mountain Goat, Oreamnos americanus.

In Wild mammals of North America, edited by J.A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press.

Wikeem, B.M., and M.D. Pitt. 1992. Diet of California Bighorn Sheep: as­sessing optimal foraging habitat. Canadian Field-Naturalist 106:327-35.

Wilson, D.E., and D.M. Reeder, editors. 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, 2nd ed. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution.

Wishart, W.D. 1984. Western Canada. In White-tailed Deer: ecology and man­agement edited by L.K. Halls. The Wildlife Institute. Harrisburg, Pa:

Stackpole Books.

Wood, M.D. 1996. Seasonal habitat use and movements of Woodland Cari­bou in the Omineca Mountains, north central British Columbia, 1991-1993. Rangifer, Special Issue 9:365-78.

Please cite these pages as:

Author, date, page title. In:   Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2018. E-Fauna BC: Electronic Atlas of the Fauna of British Columbia [www.efauna.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Date Accessed]

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