Presentations
 

Upcoming

Vahidi, Hossein (presenter), Brian Klinkenberg and Wanglin Yan.   2016.  An Interactive System for Intrinsic Validation of Citizen Science Data for Species Distribution Spatio-temporal Mapping and Modelling Applications. November 17, 2016.  13th International Conference on Location-based Services, Vienna, November 14-16, 2016.

Brian Klinkenberg.  2016.  Spatial Statistics. GIS Workshop, October 26-28. University of British Columbia.  Biodiversity Research Centre and the Institute for Oceans and Fisheries.

 

2016

 

Barbic, David (presenter), Brian Klinkenberg, et. al.  2016.  TBA.  Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. New Orleans, May 10-13, 2016.

 

2015

 

Jake Wall (presenter), Brian Klinkenberg, George Wittemyer, Lemay Valerie and Iain Douglas-Hamilton.  2015.  African Elephant Conservation:  New Spatial Approaches Bring New Understanding.  Canadian Association of Geographers 2015 Annual General Meeting.  Simon Fraser University June 1 - 5, 2015.

 

Jill Miners, Brian Klinkenberg (presenter) and Jordan Rosenfeld. 2015.  Factors Influencing the Threatened Salish Sucker in the Fraser Valley:  A GIS Perspective.  Canadian Association of Geographers 2015 Annual General Meeting.  Simon Fraser University June 1 - 5, 2015.

 

Brian Klinkenberg. 2015. Invited Speaker. Understanding and Advancing Software in Support of Community Mapping.  The Power and Potential of Community Green Mapping. Workshop April 13-14, 2015.   University of Victoria Community Mapping Collaborative. Victoria, BC.

 

Brian Klinkenberg. 2015.  Guest Lecturer.  Geob 309. Topographic Mapping.  Department of Geography, UBC.  March 13, 2015.

 

Brian Klinkenberg. 2015.   Invited Keynote Speaker. Transformative Research in the Geographic Sciences. Spatial Knowledge and Information Canada Conference, February 27 - March 1, 2015. Banff, Alberta, 

 

Jake Wall, Brian Klinkenberg (presenter), George Wittemyer, Lemay Valerie and Iain Douglas-Hamilton.  2015.  Big Elephant Data: Analysis of 15 Years of Tracking Across Africa. Spatial Knowledge and Information Canada Conference. February 27 - March 1, 2015. Banff, Alberta, 

 

Jill Miners, Brian Klinkenberg (presenter) and Jordan Rosenfeld.  2015.   Land-use Impacts on Water Quality and Salish Sucker Distribution in the Fraser Valley.  Spatial Knowledge and Information Canada Conference. February 27 - March 1, 2015. Banff, Alberta, 

 

2013

 

McConchie, Alan (presenter) and Brian Klinkenberg. 2013.  From 'wild gardening' to 'map gardening'.  Understanding user-led maintenance of Volunteered Geographic Information.  Association of American Geographers Annual General Meeting. April 9-13, 2013.  Los Angeles, California.

 

2011

Brian Klinkenberg. 2011. Visible and Religious Minority Populations: Demographic Trends and Population Concentrations 2006-2031 in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. Socio-Economic Conference 2011. Statistics Canada.

Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro (presenter)   P. Hystad, E. Setton, Brian Klinkenberg, and P. Demers.  2011.  A Methodology to estimate Canadians’ Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene in Outdoor Air Using Industrial and Micro-Emitter Databases.  International Society for Environmental Epidemiology.  Sept, 2011.  Barcelona, Spain.

McConchie, Alan (presenter) and Brian Klinkenberg. 2011. Digital Networks and the Geoweb. Spatial Knowledge and Information Canada Conference.  Fernie, British Columbia.

McConchie, Alan (presenter) and Brian Klinkenberg. 2011. Interactive User Validation of Volunteered Geographic Information.  Poster. GEOIDE Annual Conference. Toronto, Ontario.

2010

Brian Klinkenberg. 2010. Biodiversity Atlases: Knowing what you have.   Biodiversity: Connecting People, Land and Water, 2010 A. D. Latornell Conservation Symposium, Alliston, Ontario. November 17-19, 2010.

Brian Klinkenberg. 2010. Biodiversity Atlases: Science and Citizens at the Crossroads. Citizens as Sensors: Challenges and Opportunities of Participatory Mapping and Sensing Workshop. National Research Council of the National Academies, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources. October 29, 2010, Washington, DC.  Invited Presentation.

Claire E. Wooton (presenter) and Brian Klinkenberg. 2010.  A Landscape Level Analysis of Yellow-Cedar Decline in Coastal British Columbia.   2010 AAG (Association of American Geographers) Annual Meeting. April 14-18, 2010, Washington, DC.


Alan McConchie & Brian Klinkenberg (presenter).  2010. Social implications of the participatory geoweb.  2010 AAG (Association of American Geographers) Annual Meeting. April 14-18, 2010, Washington, DC.

Brian Klinkenberg (presenter) and Alan McConchie.  2010.   Encouraging User Validation of VGI   2010 AAG (Association of American Geographers) Annual Meeting. April 14-18, 2010, Washington, DC.

Klinkenberg, Brian. 2010.  Spatial Models and Emerging Diseases. NICDS Workshop on Statstical Methods in the Mangement of Natural Resources. March 3-5, 2010, Montreal. Invited Keynote Speaker.

Wooton, Claire and Brian Klinkenberg. 2010.  A landscape level analysis of yellow cedar decline in coastal British Columbia. CONFOR West 2010.  1st Annual Graduate Student Conference for Forestry and Environmental Sciences in Western North America.  January 21-23, Harrison Hot Springs, BC. Poster presentation. (Awarded 2nd prize, best poster).

2009

Klinkenberg, Brian. 2009.  Predicting mosquito hot-spots using biological-based spatial models. CODIGEOSIM Workshop on geosimulation and mathematical modelling for zoonotic diseases August 19-21, 2009.  Centre for Disease Modelling York University, Toronto.

Klinkenberg, Brian and Jack Teng.  2009. A preliminary examination of the relation between ticks, land use and public perception in the Okanagan. CODIGEOSIM Workshop on geosimulation and mathematical modelling for zoonotic diseases August 19-21, 2009.  Centre for Disease Modelling York University, Toronto. 

McConchie, Alan (Presenter) and Brian Klinkenberg.2009. Mashups, mapping and map-making on the Geoweb. American Association of Geographers 2009 Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV., March 25, 2009.

Klinkenberg, Brian. 2009. Volunteered Geographic Information: Have we been here before? American Association of Geographers 2009 Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV., Tueasday March 24, 2009.

Klinkenberg, Brian.  2009.  The Conservation Value of E-Flora BC. Van Dusen Gardens, Cedar Lecture Series.  Thursday March 12, 2009.

McConchie, Alan (Presenter) and Brian Klinkenberg. 2009. Mashups, hacktivism and DIY mapping on the World Wide Web. Spatial Knowledge and Information - Canada Conference. Held at Fernie, BC Feb. 2009.

Wooton, Claire (Presenter), and Brian Klinkenberg. 2009. Unravelling the Mysterious Phenomenon of Yellow-Cedar Decline. Spatial Knowledge and Information - Canada Conference. Held at Fernie, BC Feb. 2009.

Wall, Jake (Presenter) and Brian Klinkenberg. 2009. Elephants Avoid Costly Mountaineering. Spatial Knowledge and Information - Canada Conference. Held at Fernie, BC Feb. 2009. (Awarded 1st prize best student presentation).

Teng, Jack (Presenter), Karen Bartlett, Brian Klinkenberg, and Muhammad Morshed. 2009.  The Infection Risk to Tick-Borne Zoonoses for the Osoyoos Indian Band.  First Nations Environmental Contaminants Workshop Rounds 2009. Richmond, Canada, Feb. 2009.

Teng, Jack (Presenter), Karen Bartlett, Brian Klinkenberg, and Muhammad Morshed. 2009.  The Infection Risk to Tick-Borne Zoonoses in Relation to Land Use in Rural Areas. UW/UBC/SFU 21st Annual Occupational and Environmental Health Conference 2009. Held at Semiahmoo, USA, Jan. 2009. 

Teng, Jack (Presenter), Karen Bartlett, Brian Klinkenberg, and Muhammad Morshed. 2009.  The Infection Risk to Tick-Borne Zoonoses in Relation to Land Use in Rural Areas.  Animal Determinants of Emerging Diseases Phone Rounds 2009. Vancouver, Canada, Jan. 2009. 

2008

Teng, Jack (presenter), Karen Bartlett, Brian Klinkenberg, and Muhammad Morshed. 2008.  The Infection Risk to Tick-Borne Zoonoses in Relation to Land Use in Rural Areas.  International EcoHealth Forum 2008. Held at Merita, Mexico, Dec. 2008. (Published)

Teng, Jack (presenter), Karen Bartlett, Brian Klinkenberg, and Muhammad Morshed. 2008.  Mental Models of Ticks and Tick-Borne Zoonoses in the Okanagan. British Columbia Zoonotic and Vector Borne-Diseases Conference 2008. Held at Abbotsford, Canada, Nov. 2008.

Tooke, T.R. (presenter), Klinkenberg, B., Coops, N.C. Spatial data integration for global and local assessments of environmental equity in major Canadian cities. 7th International Conference on Urban Health (ICUH2008). Vancouver, British Columbia, October 29-31, 2008.

Klinkenberg, Brian.  2008. Knowing biodiversity: exploring the biogeographic atlases of British Columbia. Chilliwack Field Naturalists. Tuesday, October 21, 2008.

Lara Hoshizaki (Presenter), Kai MA Chan, and Brian Klinkenberg. July, 2008. Ecosystem services in the central interior of BC: A spatially explicit study of their value in conservation planning.  2008. Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, Chattanooga, TN. July 13-17, 2008.

Lo, Veronica, Colin Levings, Kai Chan, Nathalie Simard and Brian Klinkenberg.  2008.  Shipping patterns across Canada: Estimating potential propagule pressure by ballast water.  Canadian Aquatic Invasive Species Network (CAISN) AGM April 21-22, Banff, Alberta. (Poster; won 3rd prize as best poster).

Klinkenberg, Brian.  April 2008.  Knowing biodiversity: Terra firma and terra incognita. Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, Departmental Colloquium presentation. University of British Columbia. (Invited Colloquium Presentation).

Klinkenberg, Brian. March 10, 2008.  Niche modeling and Human Pathogens.   Zoology 502. University of British Columbia. Graduate Ecology Seminar.  (Invited guest lecturer).

Klinkenberg, Brian. February 16, 2008.  The Reflexivity of Geospatial Technology:  Exploring the Geographies of Hope and Fear. Spatial Knowledge and Information (SKI) Canada Conference. February 14-17, 2008.  Fernie, BC.

Alan McConchie (Presenter) and Brian Klinkenberg. February 16, 2008.  Web Map Mashups:  Cartography of Insurgence? Spatial Knowledge and Information (SKI) Canada Conference. February 14-17, 2008.  Fernie, BC.

Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro (Presenter) and Brian Klinkenberg. February 15, 2008. The role of GIS in Modeling Critical Infrastructure Interdependencies: A Case Study at UBC. Spatial Knowledge and Information (SKI) Canada Conference. February 14-17, 2008.  Fernie, BC.  

2007

Klinkenberg, Brian November 8, 2007.  Moderator: Spatial Information Needs for Emergency Responders.  World Cafe: Disaster Simulation Tools for Training and Response during Large Disasters. 4th Annual Canadian Risk and Hazards Network Symposium, November 6-8, 2007, Richmond BC. 

Cervantes, Alejandro-Larios (Presenter) and Brian Klinkenberg November 6, 2007.  GIS, Emergency Management and Critical Infrastructures.  Poster Presentation. 4th Annual Canadian Risk and Hazards Network Symposium. November 6-8 2007, Richmond, BC.

Klinkenberg, Brian. October 22, 2007.  Electronic Atlases: Past, Present and Future.  Selkirk Geospatial Research Centre and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program, Nelson, BC.  (Invited Presentation). 

Klinkenberg, Brian. October 11 2007.  Geospatial Technologies: Hope, Fear and Responsibilities.  Simon Fraser University, Department of Geography, Departmental Coloquium. Burnaby BC. (Invited Colloquium Presentation).

Masato Shinoda (Presenter), Kaoru Tachiiri, Brian Klinkenberg and Yuki Morinaga. September 2007. Developing a Nationwide Early Warning System of Meteorological Disasters for the Mongolian Pastoralism. Second International Conference of GIS/Remote Sensing in Hydrology, Water Resources and Environment, Guangzhou, China. September 17-23 2007.

Mak, Sunny (Presenter), Klinkenberg, B, Bartlett, K. H. , Fyfe, M. Ecological niche modelling of Cryptococcus neoformans gattii in British Columbia, Canada. ESRI User Conference, San Diego, CA. June 16-22, 2007.


Klinkenberg, Brian. June 2007.  Oil and Water?  Geospatial Technologies, Taxonomy and Collections Databases:   the Case of E-Flora BC. Annual Meeting of the Canadian Botanical Association.  Symposium:  Floristics for the Future, Systematics and Phytogeography Section, June 10-14, 2007. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. (Invited Presentation).

Klinkenberg, Brian. April 2007.  Virtual Botany--A Peak into the World of E-Flora BC.  Vancouver Natural History Society: Botany Group.   (Invited Presentation).

Bartram, L. (Presenter), B. Klinkenberg and K. Booth. February 2007. Visualizing Infrastructure Interdependencies in Emergencies.  Infrastructures Interdependencies Coordination Industrial Partners' Workshop 2007.  

2006

Klinkenberg, Brian (Presenter) and Alejandro Cervantes-Larios. September 2006.  GIS for Visualization and Analysis of Infrastructure Networks . Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA) Annual Conference  September 27, 2006.  

Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro (Presenter) and Brian Klinkenberg. September 2006. Spatial Mismatch and the Case of 7 Immigrant Groups:   Accessibility to Settlement Services in Toronto.  Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA) Annual Conference.  September 27, 2006.   

Henderson, Sarah (Presenter), Benjamin Burkholder, Michael Brauer, Peter Jackson, Brian Klinkenberg, and Charles Ichoku.September 2006.  Forest Fire Smoke Exposure Assessment: Use of Remote Sensing Data in a Pollution Dispersion Model.  International Society for Environmental Epidemiology International Conference.   September 2 - 6, 2006.  Paris, France. 

Klinkenberg, Brian. July 2006.  E-Flora BC:  A Canadian Floristic Resource.  Botany 2006:  Annual Meeting of the Botanical Society of America.  Centennial Celebration.  Symposium:  Flora of North America Synergy with other Botanical Projects.  July 28-Aug. 3. Chico, California. (Invited Presentation).

Klinkenberg, Brian (Presenter) and Alejandro Cervantes-Larios. June 2006. GIS and Emergency Preparedness: Visualizing Infrastructure.  GEOTEC Event 2006.Canadian Cartographic Association Annual Meeting.  June 18-21. Ottawa, Ontario.  

Klinkenberg, Brian (Presenter), Kaoru Tachiiri, and Sunny Mak.  June 2006.  Linking Geospatial Analysis, Ecology and Epidemiology: Predicting West Nile Virus in British Columbia.  GEOTEC Event 2006, and the Canadian Cartographic Association.  Joint Program.  June 18 -21. Ottawa, Ontario. 

Klinkenberg, Brian (Presenter) and Alejandro Cervantes-Larios. June 2006.  A Geospatial Analysis of Immigrant Settlement Services in Toronto.  GEOTEC Event 2006, and the Canadian Cartographic Association. Joint Program.  June 18-21. Ottawa, Ontario. 

Klinkenberg, Brian. May 2006.  Geospatial Technologies and Geographies of Fear and Hope. UniGIS Seminar, Harbour Centre.  May 18-19.  Vancouver, British Columbia.  (Invited presentation).

Marti, J. R. (Presenting author), B. Klinkenberg, J. Hollman A. Cervantes-Larios and L. Liu.  May 2006.  Identification of Interdependencies among Critical Infrastructures:  UBC Campus Case.  8th International Conference on Current Research Information Systems. May 11-13th. Bergen, Norway. 

Klinkenberg, Brian. February 2006.  The Electronic Atlases of BC:  An overview of E-Flora BC and E-Fauna BC.  Presentation prepared for "Measuring and Monitoring Sustainable Forest Management Criteria and Indicators: an Update on Some Useful Sources of Terrestrial Ecological Data"  Workshop.  Forest Research Extension Partnership.   February 20th, 2006.  Victoria, BC. (Invited Presentation).

Klinkenberg, Brian. January 2006.  The Use of GIS and databases in Conservation: An Introduction to E-Flora BC atlassing.  Aliens as Foes Symposium.  Annual General Meeting, Invasive Plant Council of BC.  January 23, 2006  Richmond, BC. (Invited Presentation).

2005

Klinkenberg, Brian. April 8, 2005.  Plenary Speaker: Geospatial technologies and the Geographies of Hope and Fear.  American Association of Geographers, Annual General Meeting.  Denver, Colorado.  (Invited Plenary Speaker).

Klinkenberg, Brian. February, 2005.  Semi-Variograms in Landscape Ecology and Management.   Forestry 594.  Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia.   (Invited guest lecturer)

Other

Klinkenberg, Brian. September 28, 2004.    E-Flora BC:  An Electronic Atlas of the Plants of BC.   Society for Conservation GIS, Baltimore, Maryland.

Klinkenberg, Brian. September 17, 2004.  Will we ever know enough?  Limitations of Spatial Modelling in Conservation Biology.  Centre for Applied Conservation Research Colloquium.  University of British Columbia.  Invited Speaker.

Klinkenberg, Brian.  2004.  Spatial Modelling and the Identification of Potential Habitat.   Species at Risk:  Pathways to Recovery. March 4, 2004, Victoria.

Brian Klinkenberg, 2003.  Community Mapping:  the case of E-Flora BC.  CHiRP,  Whistler Community Habitat Resources Project, Whistler, BC. November 17, 2003.  Invited speaker.

Brian Klinkenberg, 2003.  Can we get there from here:  Detours on the road to knowing biodiversity.  Canadian Association of Geographers. 2003 Annual General Meeting, Victoria, BC.

Sharma, Tara and Brian Klinkenberg, 2003.  Integrating human decision-making in dynamic land use simulation models.  Canadian Association of Geographers. 2003 Annual General Meeting, Victoria, BC.

B. Klinkenberg, 2003.  From Tulip Trees to Sand Plains:  Investigating patterns of biodiversity in Carolinian Canada.  Conservation Biology Lecture Series, Department of Geography and the Richmond Nature Park Society, Richmond, BC, April 2003.  Invited.

B. Klinkenberg, 2003.  E-Flora BC:  the evolution of a virtual community.   GIS 2003.  Vancouver, BC.

Sharma, T. and B. Klinkenberg. 2002.  Spatio-temporal Modeling for Simulation of Landuse Scenarios.  ESRI User Conference 2002. San Diego, CA July 8-12.

Klinkenberg, B. 2002.  One Size fits all?  Methods for Neighbourhood Identification.  Canadian Cartographic Association, AGM, Waterloo, May 2002.

Klinkenberg, B.  2002.  Neighbourhoods through space and time.  Association of American Geographers, AGM, Los Angeles, March 21st 2002.

Klinkenberg, B.,  2001.  Canada's species at risk:  the case of the Phantom Orchid.   Conservation Biology Lecture Series, Department of Geography and the Richmond Nature Park Society, Richmond, BC, April 2003.  Invited presentation.

Cunningham, J. Gregory and B. Klinkenberg.  2001.GIS and AI:  A nonlinear, spatially-aware property prediction model. Proceedings GIS 2001, Vancouver.

Cunningham, G. and B. Klinkenberg.  2001.  A 'spatially-aware' property prediction model.  GIS 2001.  Vancouver, BC.

Klinkenberg, B.  2001.  The future of Geomatics education panel discussion.  GIS 2001.  Vancouver, BC.  Invited presentation.

Klinkenberg, B.  2001.  Moderator of panel discussion on the cost of spatial data in Canada.  Vancouver, Canadian Institute of Geomatics. Invited moderator.

Klinkenberg, B.  2000.  An editor's view of Cartography and GIS.  GIScience 2000.  Savannah, Georgia. Invited presentation.

Klinkenberg, B..  2000.  Canada's species at Risk:  COSEWIC and the Phantom Orchid.   The Vancouver Orchid Society.

Klinkenberg, B. et. al.  1999.   Echos of Past Landscapes:  Potentially Contaminated Sites in Vancouver. Poster, Canadian Cartographic Association Annual Meeting, 1999, Edmonton, Alberta.

Klinkenberg, B.  1998.  The true cost of data in Canada.  Keynote presentation at 1998 CCA Annual Conference, London, Ontario. Invited presentation.

Klinkenberg, B.  1997.  Should professors be copyrighted?   1997 CCA Annual Conference, St. Johns, Newfoundland.  Invited presentation.

Klinkenberg, B.  1997.  GIS Education: Concepts versus practice.  GIS'97.  Vancouver, BC.

Klinkenberg, B.  1997.  Trends and activities in GIS education via the Internet: The Virtual Geography Department Project.  GIS'97.  Vancouver, BC.

Klinkenberg, B.,  1997.  A Spatial Analysis of the Rare Plants of the Carolinian Zone.  1997.  Poster.  GIS'97.  Vancouver, BC.

Antle, A. and B. Klinkenberg.  1996.  Statistical and non-statistical approaches to data generation techniques.  Part II.   GIS '96.  Vancouver, BC, 7 pgs.

Klinkenberg, B.,  1995.  Water management for sustainable development in the Beijing-Tianjin--Tangshang region, China.  ASPRS Puget Sound Regional Meeting,  January 1995.

Klinkenberg, B.,  1995.  Poster on Rare vascular plants of Southwestern Ontario.   GIS'95  (Vancouver, BC).

Klinkenberg, B. and M. Joy.  1994.  Visualizing uncertainty:  succession or misclassification?   GIS/LIS '94. Phoenix, 8 pgs.

Klinkenberg, B.,  1993.  Fractals and GIS.   Workshop on GIS at UBC  (also conference co-organizer).

Xiao, Y. and B. Klinkenberg.  1993.  Topographic characterization for geographic modelling.  GIS'93, Vancouver. p. 883-898.

Xiao, Y. and B. Klinkenberg,  1992.  Public information systems.   First annual conference of Chinese Professionals in GIS  (Buffalo),   August 15-16, 1992.

Goodchild, M. F., B. Klinkenberg and D. G. Janelle,  1990. Interpreting individual behaviour according to space-time models in a GIS:  Halifax, 1971.  Social Science History Association Conference  (Minneapolis,  Minnesota),  October 19, 1990.

Klinkenberg, B.,  1990.  Geographical developments in information systems.  Panel presentation, GIS for the 1990s.   (Ottawa, Ontario),  February 1990.

Klinkenberg, B. and Y. Xiao,  1990.  Some conceptual definitions in error analysis in GIS.   GIS for the 1990s Conference  (Ottawa, Ontario),  February 1990.

Klinkenberg, B.,  1989.   Visualization and Geographic Information Systems.  85th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers  (Baltimore, Maryland.)

Klinkenberg, B.,  1988.   The fractal dimensions of the physiographic provinces of the United States.  84th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers  (Phoenix, Arizona.)

Klinkenberg, B.,  1988.  Digital mapping for navigation.   Pacific Institute of Cartographers Society 1988 Annual General Meeting  (Victoria, BC),  invited speaker.

Klinkenberg, B.,  1987.   The multiple dimensions of fractals.  83rd Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers  (Portland, Oregon).

Klinkenberg, B.,  1987.  GIS and modern cartography.  Workshop on Geographic Data and Mapping for high school teachers of BC.  Invited.

Klinkenberg, B.,  1985.  Computers, Cartography and Geography.  UWO-UQAM Conference on Futures for Geography and Geographers.  Invited.

Klinkenberg, B.,  1985.   The theory of island biogeography applied to the vascular flora of the Erie Islands.   9th Biosciences Colloquium of the College of Biological Sciences  (The Ohio State University),  May 28-31, 1985.  Invited.

Klinkenberg, B.,  1985.   Taylor and Parkes revisited:  An analysis using a three-mode factor analysis technique. 81st Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers  (Detroit, Michigan).

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