UNIT 74 - KNOWLEDGE BASED TECHNIQUES

UNIT 74 - KNOWLEDGE BASED TECHNIQUES

Compiled with assistance from David Lanter, University of California, Santa Barbara

  • A. INTRODUCTION
  • B. KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION
  • C. KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATIONS
  • D. SEARCH MECHANISMS
  • E. INFERENCE
  • F. ISSUES
  • REFERENCES
  • EXAM AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
  • NOTES

    UNIT 74 - KNOWLEDGE BASED TECHNIQUES

    Compiled with assistance from David Lanter, University of California, Santa Barbara

    A. INTRODUCTION

    Example

    Elements of knowledge based systems

    Expert system "shells"

    B. KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION

    Example of knowledge base constructed by experts

    Examples of knowledge inferred from interaction with experts

    C. KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATIONS

    Trees

    Semantic networks

    Frames

    Production rules

    D. SEARCH MECHANISMS

    E. INFERENCE

    F. ISSUES

    REFERENCES

    Texts on artificial intelligence and expert systems:

    Luger, G.F. and W.A. Stubblefield, 1989. Artificial Intelligence and the Design of Expert Systems, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co, Redwood City, CA.

    Tanimoto, S.L., 1987. The Elements of Artificial Intelligence, Computer Science Press, Rockville, MD.

    Winston, P.H., 1980. Artificial Intelligence, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

    KBGIS:

    Smith, T.R. and M. Pazner, 1984. "Knowledge-based control of search and learning in a large-scale GIS," Proceedings, International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Zurich, 2:498-519.

    Smith, T.R. et al., 1987. "KBGIS-II: a knowledge-based geographical information system," International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 1:149-72.

    Other:

    Freeman, H. and J. Ahn, 1984. "AutoNAP an expert system to automate map name placement," Proceedings, International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Zurich, pp 556-571. Design of an expert system for polygon label placement.

    Imhof, E., 1975. "Positioning names on maps," The American Cartographer 2. An analysis of rules for label positioning.

    Kubo, S., 1986. "The basic scheme of TRINITY: a GIS with intelligence," Proceedings, Second International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Seattle. International Geographical Union, Commission on Geographical Data Sensing and Processing, Williamsville, NY, 363-74.

    Walker, P.A. and D.M. Moore, 1988. "SIMPLE: an inductive modelling and mapping system for spatially oriented data," International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 2:347-63.

    EXAM AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

    1. Compare the use of knowledge bases and inference in Smith's KBGIS, Kubo's TRINITY and Walker and Moore's SIMPLE. What general principles of knowledge based systems do they each exploit? Which application do you consider the most successful?

    2. Artificial intelligence has often been called the study of a set of unsolved problems. However, once an algorithm has been devised to solve a given problem, it becomes simply a solved problem, no longer meriting the mystique associated with the term "artificial intelligence". Do you agree?

    3. What areas of GIS - applications, input techniques, processes etc. - do you consider most suitable for development of expert systems?

    4. Discuss the differences between spatial decision support systems and knowledge based systems as alternative approaches to solving poorly structured problems.


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