UNIT 67 - IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES

UNIT 67 - IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES

UNIT 67 - IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES

A. INTRODUCTION

B. STAGE THEORIES OF COMPUTING GROWTH

Nolan model of computing growth

Incremental model

Radical model

C. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE

D. IMPLEMENTATION PROBLEMS

Overemphasis on technology

Rigid work patterns

Organizational inflexibility

Decision-making procedures

Assignment of responsibilities

System support staffing

Integration of information requirements

E. STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE SUCCESS

Management involvement

Training and education

Continued promotion

Responsiveness

Implementation and follow-up plans

REFERENCES

Chrisman, N.R., 1988. "The risks of software innovation: a case study of the Harvard lab," The American Cartographer 15:291-300.

Foley, M.E., 1988. "Beyond the bits, bytes and black boxes: institutional issues in successful LIS/GIS management," Proceedings, GIS/LIS 88, ASPRS/ACSM, Falls Church, VA, pp. 608- 617.

Forrest, E., G.E. Montgomery, G.M. Juhl, 1990. Intelligent Infrastructure Workbook: A Management-Level Primer on GIS, A-E-C Automation Newsletter, PO BOX 18418, Fountain Hills, AZ 85269-8418. Describes issues in developing management support during project planning and suggests strategies for successful adoption of a project.

Johansen, E., 1990. "City's GIS tracks the California oil spill," GIS World 3(2):34-7.

King, J.L. and K.L. Kraemer, 1985. The Dynamics of Computing, Columbia University Press, New York. Presents a model of adoption of computing within urban governments, and results of testing the model on two samples of cities. Includes discussion of adoption factors and the Nolan stage model.

Kuhn, T.S., 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Nolan, R.L., 1973. "Managing the computer resource: a stage hypothesis," Communications of the ACM 16:339-405.

Rhind, D.W., 1988. "Personality as a factor in the development of a discipline: the example of computer- assisted cartography," The American Cartographer 15:277- 90.

EXAM AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

1. Summarize the Nolan model of staged development of a computing environment, and discuss its validity for a GIS project.

2. Hay (Hay, A.M., 1989. "Commentary," Environment and Planning A 21:709) argues that GIS is a technical shift rather than a paradigm shift. Do you agree with his arguments?

3. The Nolan model does not appear to allow for project failure, which has been a consistent problem in the history

of GIS. How could the model be elaborated to include the possibility of failure?

4. "Effective leadership in technological innovation requires both tenacious vision and the capacity to survive a long time". Discuss this comment in the context of GIS.


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