UNIT 17 - GRAPHIC OUTPUT DESIGN ISSUES

UNIT 17 - GRAPHIC OUTPUT DESIGN ISSUES

  • A. INTRODUCTION
  • B. LABEL PLACEMENT
  • C. PRINCIPLES OF GRAPHICAL EXCELLENCE
  • D. DESIGN OF GRAPHIC OUTPUT
  • REFERENCES
  • EXAM AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
  • NOTES

    This unit introduces some fundamental concepts of graphic design. If you wish to do a more thorough job of this, consider combining this unit with the material in Unit 49.

    UNIT 17 - GRAPHIC OUTPUT DESIGN ISSUES

    A. INTRODUCTION

    Topics covered

    B. LABEL PLACEMENT

    Imhof's basic rules

    Overposting

    Polygon labeling

    Some simple methods

    C. PRINCIPLES OF GRAPHICAL EXCELLENCE

    Graphical excellence

    D. DESIGN OF GRAPHIC OUTPUT

    Scale

    Base map

    General graphic design

    Screen display

    Scene generation

    REFERENCES

    Freeman, H. and J. Ahn, 1984. "AUTONAP - an expert system for automatic map name placement," Proceedings, First International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Zurich.

    Imhof, E., 1975. "Positioning names on maps," The American Cartographer 2(2):128-44.

    Robinson, A.H., R.D. Sale, J.L. Morrison and P.C. Muehrcke, 1984. Elements of Cartography, 5th edition, Wiley, New York. Excellent source of map design principles.

    Tufte, E.R., 1983. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Graphics Press, Cheshire, CT. Contains numerous examples of graphical excellence (and its opposite) in map design.

    Zoraster, S., 1986. "Integer programming applied to the map label placement problem," Cartographica 23(3):16-27

    A session on automatic names placement at AutoCarto 9, Baltimore, April, 1989 provides several reviews of the use of expert systems for map design:

    Doerschler, J.S., and H. Freeman, "An expert system for dense- map name placement," pp. 215-224.

    Ebinger, L.R., and A.M. Goulette, "Automated names placement in a non-interactive environment," pp. 205-214.

    Johnson, D.S., and U. Basoglu, "The use of artificial intelligence in the automated placement of cartographic names," pp. 225-230.

    Jones, C.B., and A.C. Cook, "Ruled-based cartographic name placement with Prolog," pp. 231-240.

    EXAM AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

    1. "Map output is essential to GIS, yet GIS designers have ignored or failed to implement many of the well-known principles of map design". Discuss.

    2. Examine and discuss a collection of GIS output maps, such as the ARC/INFO Maps volume produced annually by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA, or the slides supplied with Unit 53. How effectively do they implement principles of map design?

    3. Discuss the differences in graphic design principles as applied to manually produced maps, GIS hard copy output and screen displays.

    4. Review the Cartographic Design chapter of Elements of Cartography, and discuss its contents in the context of GIS output.


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