UNIT 15 - SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS IN SPATIAL ANALYSIS

UNIT 15 - SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS IN SPATIAL ANALYSIS

  • A. INTRODUCTION
  • B. ANALYSIS OF ONE CLASS OF OBJECTS
  • C. ANALYSIS OF OBJECT PAIRS
  • D. ANALYSIS OF MORE THAN ONE CLASS OF OBJECTS
  • E. ANALYSIS WHICH DEFINES NEW OBJECTS
  • F. GIS ANALYSIS FUNCTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • EXAM AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
  • NOTES

    Having established a basis of the fundamental concepts in GIS data structures, this unit begins a large module looking at how GIS can be used. First we look at how spatial relationships can be analyzed and then present a summary of the range of functions that fall within present GIS capabilities.

    UNIT 15 - SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS IN SPATIAL ANALYSIS

    A. INTRODUCTION

    Review

    B. ANALYSIS OF ONE CLASS OF OBJECTS

    Using attributes

    Using locational information

    C. ANALYSIS OF OBJECT PAIRS

    D. ANALYSIS OF MORE THAN ONE CLASS OF OBJECTS

    Shortest path example

    What spatial objects are required?

    Spatial interaction example

    E. ANALYSIS WHICH DEFINES NEW OBJECTS

    Buffer example

    Street noise example

    Trade area example

    Polygon overlay example

    F. GIS ANALYSIS FUNCTIONS

    Measure

    Coordinate transformation

    Generate objects

    Select a subset of objects

    Modify attributes of objects

    Dissolve and merge area objects

    Generalize or smooth lines

    Compute statistics for a set of objects

    Topological overlay

    Operations on surfaces

    Network analysis

    Input and output management

    REFERENCES

    Goodchild, M.F., 1988. "A spatial analytical perspective on GIS," International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 1:327-34. Examines the relationship between spatial analysis and GIS and discusses key issues.

    Goodchild, M.F., 1988. "Towards an enumeration and classification of GIS functions," Proceedings, IGIS: The Research Agenda. NASA, Washington, DC, II:67-77. Develops categories of analysis and provides examples.

    Unwin, D., 1981. Introductory Spatial Analysis, Methuen, London. A discussion of spatial analysis with a framework much like that provided by GIS: illustrates the range of spatial analysis.

    Upton, G.J.G. and B. Fingleton, 1985. Spatial Data Analysis by Example, Vol I: Point Pattern and Quantitative Data, Wiley, New York.

    EXAM AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

    1. Compare the classification of map analysis functions in this Unit with that proposed for raster functions by Berry and referenced in Unit 5.

    2. Can GIS functions be described and discussed generically, or is the raster/vector distinction unavoidable?

    3. Make a list of 6 (10? 15?) functions which should be included in GIS because of their importance in various kinds of analysis of spatial data but which are not listed in this unit.

    4. Define "object pairs" and give examples of their use in applications in (a) hydrology, (b) transportation planning.

    5. "Spatial data is distinguished by its wealth of possible relationships between objects, and by the need to qualify such relationships in different ways". Discuss.

    6. Design a database for an airline reservation system - what types of entities and relationships would be needed, and what attributes of each entity? Would the concept of an object-pair be useful?

    7. Describe some of the new objects and associated attributes which can be created by combining a topographic surface (represented by a raster of elevations) with a stream network (represented by line objects).


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