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MAMMAL REFERENCES: OPOSSUMS, MOLES AND SHREWS

Source:  Nagorsen, David.  1996.  O possums, Shrews and Moles of British Columbia. Royal BC Museum Handbook.

General Books

Churchfield, S. 1990. The natural history of shrews. Ithaca:  Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press.

Crowcroft, W.P. 1957. The life of the shrew. London: Max Reinhardt.

Gorman, M.L., and R.D. Stone. 1990. The natural history of moles. Ithaca: Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press.

Nowak, R.M. 1991. Walker's mammals of the world. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Baltimore: The JohnHopkinsUniversity Press.

van Zyll de Jong, C.G. 1983. Handbook of Canadian mammals. 1. Marsupials and insectivores. Ottawa: NationalMuseums of Canada, NationalMuseum of Natural Sciences.

Selected References

Aitchison, C.W. 1987a. Review of winter trophic relations ofsoricine shrews. Mammal Review 17:1-24.

---------------. 1987b. Winter energy requirements of soricine shrews. Mammal Review 17:25-38.

Alexander, L.F. 1996. A morphometric analysis of geographic variation within Sorex monticolus (Insectivora: Soricidae). University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication 88.

Anderson, R.M. 1934. Sorex palustris brooksi, a new Water Shrew from Vancouver Island. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 48:134.

Atkinson, R.P.D., D.W MacDonald and P.J. Johnson. 1994. The sta­tus of the European mole Talpa europea L. as an agricultural pest and its management. Mammal Review 24:73-90.

Aubry, K.B., M.J. Crites and S.D. West. 1991. Regional patterns of small mammal abundance and community composition in Oregon and Washington. Pp. 284-94. In Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests, edited by L.F. Ruggiero, K.B. Aubrey, A.B. Carey and M.H. Huff. PNW-GTR-285. Port­land, Oregon: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

Baird, D.D., R.M. Timm and G.E. Nordquist. 1983. Reproduction in the Arctic Shrew, Sorex arcticus. Journal of Mammalogy 64:298-301.

Bee, J.W., and E.R. Hall. 1956. Mammals of northern Alaska. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication 8:1-309.

Beneski, J.T., and D.W. Stinson. 1987. Sorex palustris. Mammalian Species 296.

Braham, H.W., and C.M. Neal. 1974. The effects of DDT on ener­getics of the Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda. Bulletin of Environmental Contaminants and Toxicants 12:32-37.

Branis, M., and H. Burda. 1994. Visual and hearing biology of shrews. Pp. 189-200. In Advances in the biology of shrews. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 18, edited by J.A. Merritt, G.L. Kirkland and R.K. Rose. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

Buchler, E.R. 1976. The use of echolocation by the Wandering Shrew (Sorex vagrans). Animal Behaviour 24:858-73.

Buckner, C.H. 1953. Small mammals as predators of sawflies. The Canadian Entomologist 87:121-23.

---------------. 1964. Metabolism, food capacity and feeding behavior in four species of shrews. Canadian Journal of Zoology 42:259-79.

---------------. 1966a. Populations and ecological relationships of shrews in tamarack bogs of southeastern Manitoba. Journal of Mammalogy 47:181-94.

---------------. 1966b. The role of vertebrate predators in the biological control of forest insects. Annual Review of Entomology 11:449-70.

---------------. 1970. Direct observation of shrew predation on insects and fish. The Blue Jay 28:171-72.

Buckner, C.H., and D.G.H. Ray. 1968. Notes on the Water Shrew in bog habitats of southeastern Manitoba. The Blue Jay 26:95-96.

Calder, W.A. 1969. Temperature relations and underwater endurance of the smallest homeothermic diver, the Water Shrew. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 30A:1075-82.

Cannings, R.A., and A.P. Harcombe. 1990. The Vertebrates of British Columbia: Scientific and English Names. Victoria: Royal British Columbia Museum, and Wildlife Branch, Ministry of Environment.

Carraway, L.N. 1987. Analysis of characters for distinguishing Sorex trowbridgii from sympatric S. vagrans. Murrelet 68:29-30.

---------------. 1990. A morphologic and morphometric analysis of the "Sorex vagrans species complex" in the Pacific coast region. Texas Tech University, The Museum, Special Publication 32.

Carraway, L.N., and B.J. Verts. 1991. Neurotrichus gibbsii. Mammalian Species 387.

---------------. 1994. Relationship of mandibular morphology to relative bite force in some Sorex from western North America. Pp. 210­-210. In Advances in the biology of shrews. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 18, edited by J.A. Merritt, G.L. Kirkland and R.K. Rose. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

Carraway, L.N., L.F. Alexander and B.J. Verts. 1993. Scapanus townsendii. Mammalian Species 434.

Churchfield, S. 1990. The natural history of shrews. Ithaca: Comstock Publishing Associates; Cornell University Press.

---------------. 1991. Niche dynamics, food resources and feeding strate­gies in multispecies communities of shrews. Pp. 23-34. In The biology of the Soricidae. Special Publication 1, Museum of Southwestern Biology, edited by J.S. Findley and T.L. Yates. Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico.

---------------. 1994. Foraging strategies of shrews, and the evidence from field studies. Pp. 77-87. In Advances in the biology of shrews. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 18, edited by J.A. Merritt, G.L. Kirkland and R.K. Rose. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

Clough, G.C. 1963. Biology of the Arctic Shrew, Sorex arcticus. The American Midland Naturalist 69:69-81.

Conaway, C.H. 1952. Life history of the Water Shrew (Sorex palustris navigator). The American Midland Naturalist 48:219-48.

Cowan, I. McT. 1941. Insularity in the genus Sorex on the north coast of British Columbia. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 54:95-108.

Cowan, I. McTaggart, and C.J. Guiguet. 1965. The Mammals of British Columbia. Handbook 11, revised edition. Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Museum.

Crowcroft, W.P. 1957. The life of the shrew. London: Max Reinhardt.

Dalquest, W.W., and D.R. Orcutt. 1942. The biology of the Least Shrew-mole, Neurotrichus gibbsii minor. The American Midland Naturalist 27:387-401.

Dannelid, E. 1991. The genus Sorex (Mammalia, Soricidae) - distribution and evolutionary aspects of Eu;asian species. Mammal Review 21.

---------------.. 1994. Comparison of pigment and other dental characters of eastern Palearctic Sorex (Mammalia: Soricidae). Pp. 217-32. In Advances in the biology of shrews. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 18, edited by J.A. Merritt, G.L. Kirkland, and R.K. Rose. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

Demarchi, D.A., R.D. Marsh, A.P. Harcombe and E.C. Lea. 1990. The environment. Pp. 55-142. In The birds of British Columbia. Volume 1. Edited by R.W. Campbell, N.K. Dawe, I. McT. Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser and M.C.E. McNall. Victoria: Royal British Columbia Museum; Vancouver: Canadian Wildlife Service.

Diersing, V.E. 1980. Systematics and evolution of the Pygmy Shrews (subgenus Microsorex) of North America. Journal of Mammalogy 61:76-101.

Doyle, A.T. 1990. Use of riparian and upland habitats by small mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 71:14-23.

Eadie, W.R. 1938. The dermal glands of shrews. Journal of Mammalogy 19:171-74.

Eisenberg, J.F. 1964. Studies on the behavior of Sorex vagrans. The American Midland Naturalist 72:417-25.

Feldhamer, G.A., R.S. Klann, A.S. Gerard and A. Driskell. 1993. Habitat partitioning, body size, and timing of parturition in Pygmy Shrews and associated soricids. Journal of Mammalogy 74:403-11.

Fitch, H.S., and H.W. Shirer. 1970. A radiotelemetry study of spa­tial relationships in the opossum. The American Midland Naturalist 48:170-86.

Foresman, K.R. 1986. Sorex hoyi in Idaho: a new state record. Murrelet 67:81-82.

---------------. 1994. Comparative embryonic development of the (Soricidae). Pp. 241-57. In Advances in the biology of shrews. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 18, edited by J.A. Merritt, G.L. Kirkland and R.K. Rose. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

Forsyth, D.J. 1976. A field study of growth and development of nestling Masked Shrews (Sorex cinereus). Journal of Mammalogy 57:708-21.

French, T.W. 1984. Dietary overlap of Sorex longirostris and S. cinereus in hardwood floodplain habitats in Vigo County, Indiana. The American Midland Naturalist 111:41-46.

Galindo-Leal, C., and J.B. Runciman. 1994. Status report on the Pacific Water Shrew (Sorex bendirii) in Canada. COSEWIC Status Report. Ottawa: Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

Gardner, A.L. 1973. The systematics of the genus Didelphis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) in North and Middle America. Texas Tech University, The Museum, Special Publication 4.

---------------. 1982. Virginia Opossum. Pp. 3-36. In Wild mammals of North America, edited by J.A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Gashwiler, J.S. 1976. Notes on the reproduction of Trowbridge's Shrews in western Oregon. Murrelet 57:58-62.

Genoud, M. 1988. Energetic strategies of shrews: ecological con­straints and evolutionary implications. Mammal Review 18:173-93.

George, S.B. 1988. Systematics, historical biogeography and evolu­tion of the genus Sorex. Journal of Mammalogy 69:443-61.

---------------. 1989. Sorex trowbridgii. Mammalian Species 337.

George, S.B., and J.D. Smith. 1991. Inter- and intraspecific variation among coastal and island populations of Sorex monticolus and Sorex vagrans in the Pacific Northwest. Pp. 75-91. In The biolo­gy of the Soricidae. Special Publication 1, The Museum of Southwestern Biology, edited by J.S. Findley and T.L. Yates. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico.

Gerber, H.S. 1978. Mole control in British Columbia. Victoria: Ministry of Agriculture.

Getz, L.L. 1961. Factors influencing the local distribution of shrews. The American Midland Naturalist 65:67-88.

Giacometti, L., and H. Machida. 1965. The skin of the mole Scapanus townsendii. Anatomical Record 153:31-40.

Giger, R.D. 1973. Movements and homing in Townsend's Mole near Tillamook, Oregon. Journal of Mammalogy 54:648-59.

Gillette, L.N. 1980. Movement patterns of radio-tagged opossums in Wisconsin. The American Midland Naturalist 104:1-12.

Glendenning, R. 1959. Biology and control of the Coast Mole, Scapanus orarius orarius True, in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 39:34-44.

Gorman, M.L., and R.D. Stone. 1990. The natural history of moles. Ithaca: Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press.

Gould, E., N. Negus and A. Novick. 1964. Evidence for echoloca­tion in shrews. Journal of Experimental Zoology 156:19-37.

Gunther, P.M., B.S. Horn and G.D. Babb. 1983. Small mammal populations and food selection in relation to timber harvest practices in the western Cascade Mountains. Northwest Science 57:32-44.

Handley, C.O., and M. Varn. 1994. The trap line concept applied to pitfall arrays. Pp. 285-88. In Advances in the biology of shrews. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 18, edited by J.A. Merritt, G.L. Kirkland and R.K. Rose. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

Hanski, I. 1994. Population biological consequences of body size in Sorex. Pp. 15-26. In Advances in the biology of shrews. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 18, edited by J.A. Merritt, G.L. Kirkland and R.K. Rose. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

Harcombe, A., B. Harper, S. Cannings, D. Fraser and W.T. Munro. 1994. Terms of endangerment. Pp. 11-28. In Biodiversity in British Columbia: our changing environment, edited by L.E. Harding and E. McCullum. Vancouver: Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service.

Hartman, G.D., and T.L. Yates. 1985. Scapanus orarius. Mammalian Species 253.

Hawes, M.R. 1975. Ecological adaptations in two species of shrews. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

---------------. 1976. Odor as a possible isolating mehanism in sympatric species of shrews (Sorex vagrans and Sorex obscurus). Journal of Mammalogy 57:404-6.

---------------. 1977. Home range, territoriality and ecological separation in sympatric shrews, Sorex vagrans and Sorex obscurus. Journal of Mammalogy 58:354-67.

Hennings, D., and R.S. Hoffmann. 1977. A review of the taxonomy of the Sorex vagrans species complex from western North America. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Occasional Papers 68:1-35.

Holling, C.S. 1959. The components of predation as revealed by a study of the small mammal predation of European Sawfly. The Canadian Entomologist 91:293-332.

Hooven, E.F., R.F. Hoyer and R.M. Storm. 1975. Notes on the Vagrant Shrew, Sorex vagrans, in the Willamette Valley of west­ern Oregon. Northwest Science 49:163-73.

Hopkins, D.D., and R.B. Forbes. 1979. Size and reproductive pat­terns of the Virginia Opossum in northwestern Oregon. Murrelet 60:95-98.

---------------. 1980. Dietary patterns of the Virginia Opossum in an urban environment. Murrelet 61:20-30.

Horvath, O. 1965. Arboreal predation on bird's nest by Masked Shrew. Journal of Mammalogy 46:495.

Hutterer, R. 1985. Anatomical adaptations of shrews. Mammal Review 15:43-55.

Hyvarinen, H. 1994. Brown fat and the wintering of shrews. Pp. 259-66. In Advances in the biology of shrews. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 18, edited by J.A. Merritt, Kirkland and R.K. Rose. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

Ingles, L.G. 1961. Home range and habitats ofthe Wandering Shrew. Journal of Mammalogy 42:455-62.

Innes, D.G.L., J.F. Bendell and B.J. Naylor. 1990. High densities of the Masked Shrew, Sorex cinereus, in Jack Pine plantations in northern Ontario. The American Midland Naturalist 124:330-­41.

Ivanter, E.V. 1994. The structure and adaptive peculiarities of pelage in soricine shrews. Pp. 441-54. In Advances in the biology of shrews. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 18, edited by J.A. Merritt, G.L. Kirkland and R.K. Rose. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

Jameson, E.W., Jr. 1955. Observations on the biology of Sorex trow­bridgei in the Sierra Nevada, California. Journal of Mammalogy 36:339-45.

Jensen, I.M. 1986a. Foraging strategies of the mole Parascalops brew­eri Bachman, 1842. I. The distribution of prey. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:1727-33.

---------------. 1986b. Foraging strategies of the mole Parascalops breweri Bachman, 1842. II. The economics of finding prey. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:1734-38.

Junge, J.A., and R.S. Hoffmann. 1981. An annotated key to the Long-tailed Shrews (Genus Sorex) of the United States and Canada, with notes on Middle American Sorex. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Occasional Paper 94.

Junge, J.A., R.S. Hoffmann and R.W. Derby. 1983. Relationships within the Holarctic Sorex arcticus - Sorex tundrensis species complex. Acta Theriologica 28:339-50.

Kirkland, G.L. 1991. Competition and coexistence in shrews (Insectivora: Soricidae). Pp. 15-22. In The biology of the Soricidae. Special Publication 1, Museum of Southwestern Biology, edited by J.S. Findley and T.L. Yates. Albuquerque:

The University of New Mexico.

Kirkland, G.L., and P.K. Sheppard. 1994. Proposed standard proto­col for sampling small mammals communities. Pp. 277-83. In Advances in the biology of shrews. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 18, edited by J.A. Merritt, G.L. Kirkland and R.K. Rose. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

Kritzman, E.B. 1972. A captive Shrew-mole and her litter. Murrelet 53:47-49.

Kuhn, L.W., W.Q. Wick and R.J, Pedersen. 1966. Breeding nests of Townsend's Mole in Oregon. Journal of Mammalogy 47:239-49.

Lewis, T.H. 1983. The anatomy and histology of the rudimentary eye of Neurotrichus. Northwest Science 57:8-15.

Long, C.A. 1972. Notes on habitat preference and reproduction in Pygmy Shrews, Microsorex. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 86:155-60.

---------------. 1974. Microsorex hoyi and Microsorex thompsoni. Mammalian Species 33.

Marshall, L.G. 1984. Monotremes and marsupials. Pp. 59-115. In Orders and families of Recent mammals of the world, edited by S. Anderson and J.K.J. Jones. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Martell, A.M., and A.M. Pearson. 1978. The small mammals of the Mackenzie Delta Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic 31:475-88.

Maser, C., and J.F. Franklin. 1974. Checklist of vertebrate animals of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest. USDA Forest Service Resource Bulletin. PNW-51. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Department of agriculture, Forest Service.

McComb, W.C., K. McGarigal and R.G. Anthony. 1993. Small mammal and amphibian abundance in streamside and upslope habitats of mature Douglas-fir stands, western Oregon. Northwest Science 67:7-15.

McKey-Fender, D., W.M. Fender and V.G. Marshall. 1994. North American earthworms native to Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:1325-39.

McManus, J.J., 1974. Didelphis virginiana. Mammalian Species 40.

McNab, B.K. 1991. The energy expenditure of shrews. Pp. 35-45. In The biology of the Soricidae. Special Publication 1, Museum of Southwestern Biology, edited by J.S. Findley and T.L. Yates. Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico.

Meidinger, D., and J. Pojar (editors). 1991. Ecosystems of British Columbia. Special Report Series, 6. Victoria: British Columbia Ministry of Forests.

Moore, A.W. 1940. A live mole trap. Journal of Mammalogy 21:223-­25.

Nagorsen, D.W. 1990. The mammals of British Columbia: a taxonomic catalogue. Victoria: Royal British Columbia Museum.

Nagorsen, D.W., and D.M. Jones. 1981. First records of the Tundra Shrew (Sorex tundrensis) in British Columbia. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 95:93-94.

Nagorsen, D.W., and R.L. Peterson. 1981. Distribution, abundance and species diversity of small mammals in Quetico Provincial Park, Ontario. Le Naturaliste Canadien 108:209-18.

Nellis, C.H., C.J. Terry and R.D. Taber. 1974. A conical pitfall trap for small mammals. Northwest Science 48:102-4.

Newman, J.R. 1976. Population dynamics of the Wandering Shrew (Sorex vagrans). The Wasmann Journal of Biology 34:235-50.

Nowak, R.M. 1991. Walker's mammals of the world. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.

Pankakoski, E., I. Koivisto, H. Hyvarinen and J. Terhivuo. 1994. Shrews as indicators of heavy metal pollution. Pp. 137-49. In Advances in the biology of shrews. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 18, edited by J.A. Merritt, G.L. Kirkland and R.K. Rose. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

Pattie, D. 1969. Behavior of captive Marsh Shrews (Sorex bendiriz). Murrelet 50:28-32.

---------------. 1973. Sorex bendirii. Mammalian Species 27.

Pedersen, R.J. 1963. The life history and ecology of Townsend's Mole, Scapanus townsendii (Bachman), in Tillamook County Oregon. M.S. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis.

Peltonen, A., S. Peltonen, P. Vilpas and A. Beloff. 1989. Distributional ecology of shrews in three archipelagos in Finland. Annales Zoologici Fennici 26:381-87.

Pernetta, J.C. 1977. Anatomical and behavioural specialisations of shrews in relation to their diet. Canadian Journal of Zoology 55:1442-53.

Poduschka, W. 1977. Insectivore communication. Pp. 600-631. In How animals communicate, edited by T.A. Sebeok. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Prince, L.P. 1940. Notes on the habits of the Pygmy Shrew (Microsorex hoyz) in captivity. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 54:97-100.

---------------. 1941. Water traps capture the Pygmy Shrew (Microsorex hoyz) in abundance. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 55:72.

Quay, W.B. 1951. Observations on mammals of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Journal of Mammalogy 32:88-99.

Quilliam, T.A., J.A. Clark and A.J. Salsbury. 1971. The ecological significance of certain new hematological findings in the mole and hedgehog. Comparative Biochemical Physiology 40A:89-102.

Rausch, V.R., and R.L. Rausch. 1993. Karyotypic characteristics of Sorex tundrensis Merriam (Mammalia: Soricidae), a Nearctic species of the S. araneus group. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 106:410-416.

Reed, C.A. 1951. Locomotion and appendicular anatomy in three soricoid insectivores. The American Midland Naturalist 45:513­-671.

Repenning, C.A. 1967. Subfamilies and genera of the Soricidae. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 565. Washington: United States Government Printing Office.

Reynolds, H.C. 1952. Studies on reproduction in the opossum Didelphis virginiana. University of California Publications in Zoology 52:223-84.

Romer, A.S. 1966. Vertebrate paleontology. 3rd ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Rust, A.K. 1978. Activity rhythms in the shrews, Sorex sinuosus Grinnell and Sorex trowbridgii Baird. The American Midland Naturalist 99:369-71.

Ryan, J.M. 1986. Dietary overlap in sympatric populations of Pygmy Shrews, Sorex hoyi, and Masked Shrews, Sorex cinereus, in Michigan. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 100:225-28.

Schaefer, V.H. 1978. Aspects of habitat selection in the Coast Mole (Scapanus orarius) in British Columbia. Ph.D. Dissertation, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby.

---------------. 1982. Movements and diel activity of the Coast Mole (Scapanus orarius True). Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:480­-82.

Schaefer, V.H., and R.M.F. Sadleir. 1979. Concentration of carbon dioxide and oxygen in mole tunnels. Acta Theriologica 24:267-71.

---------------. 1981. Factors influencing molehill construction by the Coast Mole (Scapanus orarius True). Mammalia 45:31-38.

Scheffer, T.H. 1917. Trapping moles and utilizing their skins with espe­cial reference to the Pacific coast states. Farmers' Bulletin, 832. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture.

Seidensticker, J., M.A. O'Connell and A.J.T. Johnsingh. 1987. Virginia Opossum. Pp. 247-61. In Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. edited by M. Novak, J.A. Baker, M.E. Obbard and B. Malloch. Toronto: Ontario Trappers Association and Ontario Ministry of Natural of Resources.

Simpson, G.G. 1980. Splendid isolation: the curious history of South American mammals. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Slipp, J.W. 1942. Nest and young of the Olympic Dusky Shrew. Journal of Mammalogy 23:211-12.

Sorenson, M.W. 1962. Some aspects of Water Shrew behavior. The American Midland Naturalist 68:445-62.

Spencer, A.W., and D. Pettus. 1966. Habitat preferences of five sympatric species of long-tailed shrews. Ecology 47:677-83.

Stewart, D.T., T.B. Herman and T. Teferi. 1989. Littoral feeding in a high-density insular population of Sorex cinereus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:2074-77.

Stinson, D.W., and J.D. Reichel. 1985. Rediscovery of the Pygmy Shrew in Washington. Murrelet 66:59-60.

Sullivan, D.S., and T.P. Sullivan. 1982. Effects of logging practices and Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, seeding on shrew, Sorex spp., populations in coastal coniferous forest in British Columbia. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 96:455-61.

Svihla, A. 1934. The mountain Water Shrew. Murrelet 15:44-45.

Teferi, T., T.B. Herman and D.T. Stewart. 1992. Breeding biology of an insular population of the Masked Shrew (Sorex cinereus Kerr) in Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:62-66.

Terry, C.J. 1978. Food habits ofthree sympatric species of Insectivora in western Washington. The Canadian Field­-Naturalist 92:38-44.

---------------. 1981. Habitat differentiation among three species of Sorex and Neurotrichus gibbsii in Washington. The American Midland Naturalist 106:119-25.

van Tighem, K.J., and L.W. Gyug. 1984. The ecological land classifica­tion of Mount Revelstoke and Glacier National Parks British Columbia. Wildlife Resource. Vol. 2. Edmonton: Canadian Wildlife Service.

van Zyll de Jong, C.G. 1982. An additional character useful in dis­tinguishing two similar shrews Sorex monticolus and Sorex vagrans. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 96:349-50.

---------------. 1983a. Handbook of Canadian mammals. 1. Marsupials and insectivores. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, National Museum of Natural Sciences.

---------------. 1983b. A morphometric analysis of North American shrews of the Sorex arcticus group, with special consideration of the taxonomic status of S. a. maritimensis. Le Naturaliste Canadien 110:373-78.

---------------. 1991. Speciation in the Sorex cinereus group. Pp. 65-73. In The biology of the Soricidae. Special Publication 1, Museum of Southwestern Biology, edited by J.S. Findley and T.L. Yates. Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico.

Whitaker, J.O. Jr., and C. Maser. 1976. Food habits of five western Oregon shrews. Northwest Science 50:102-7.

Whitaker, J.O. Jr., C. Maser and R.J. Pedersen. 1979. Food and ectoparasitic mites of Oregon moles. Northwest Science 53:268-­73.

Whitaker, J.O. Jr., S.P. Cross and C. Maser. 1983. Food of Vagrant Shrews (Sorex vagrans) from Grant County, Oregon, as related to livestock grazing pressures. Northwest Science 57:107-11.

Whitaker, J.O. Jr., and T.W. French. 1984. Foods of six species of sympatric shrews from New Brunswick. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62:622-26.

Wilson, D.E., and D.M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world. A taxonomic and geographic reference. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Woodward, S.M. 1994. Identification of Sorex monticolus and Sorex vagrans from British Columbia. Northwest Science 68:277-283.

Wrigley, R.E., J.E. Dubois and H.W.R. Copland. 1979. Habitat, abundance and distribution of six species of shrews in Manitoba. Journal of Mammalogy 60:505-20.

Yates, T.L. 1978. The systematics and evolution of North American moles (Insectivora: Talpidae). Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.

---------------. 1984. Insectivores, elephant shrews, tree shrews and der­mopterans. Pp. 117-44. In Orders and families of Recent mam­mals of the world, edited by S. Anderson and J.K.J. Jones. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Yates, T.L., and R.J. Pedersen. 1982. Moles (Talpidae). Pp. 37-51. In Wild mammals of North America, edited by J.A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.

Youngman, P.M. 1975. Mammals of the Yukon Territory. National Museum of Natural History, Publications in Zoology 10.

Ziegler, A.C. 1971. Dental homologies and possible relationships of Recent Talpidae. Journal of Mammalogy 52:50-68.

Zuleta, G.A., and C. Galindo-Leal. 1994. Distribution and abundance of four species of small mammals at risk in a fragmented landscape. Wildlife Working Report, WR-64. Victoria: British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Wildlife Branch.

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Author, date, page title. In:   Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2018. E-Fauna BC: Electronic Atlas of the Fauna of British Columbia [www.efauna.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Date Accessed]

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